PSYC 352 Chapter 1 Vocabulary

stefaniczala's version from 2016-03-02 19:40


Question Answer
arable landtype of land that can sustain life by food production of some sort
attitudesevaluations of objects occurring in ongoing thoughts about the objects, or stored in memory
attributionsbeliefs about the underlying causes of behaviour
beliefsa proposition that is regarded as true; people of different cultures have different these
cultural psychologya theoretical and methodological framework that posits an important role for culture and its influence on mental processes, behaviour, and vice versa
cross-cultural researchresearch methodology that tests cultural parameters of psych knowledge
cultural worldviewsculturally specific belief systems about the world; contain attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and values; people have these because of evolved, complex cognitions; a universal psych process; content is specific and different for each culture
culturea unique meaning and info system, shared by a group and transmitted across generations, that allows the group to meet basic needs of survival, pursue happiness and well-being, and derive meaning from life
culture-specifica psych process that is considered to be true for some people of some cultures but not for others
deviation from temperate climatethe degree to which the average temp of a given region will differ from what is considered to be the relatively "easiest" temperature in which to live
enculturationthe process of learning about and being indoctrinated into a culture
emicsaspects of life that appear to differ across cultures; culture-specific principles/truths
eticsaspects of life that appear to be consistent across cultures; universal/pan-cultural principles/truths
normsa generally accepted standard of behaviour within a cultural or sub-cultural group
population densitythe number of people living within a given unit of space; higher in cities than rural areas
ratchet effectthe concept that humans continually improve on improvements, that they do not go backward or revert to previous states; progress occurs because improvements move themselves upward
religionorganized systems of beliefs that tie together many attitudes, values, beliefs, worldview, and norms; produce guidelines for living
sacred valuesvalues considered to be nonnegotiable; differ from normal values because they incorporate moral beliefs that drive actions in ways dissociated from prospects of success
self-conceptsum of one's ideas about one's self, including physical, mental, historical, and relational aspects, as well as capacities to learn/perform; usually considered central to personal ID and change over time; partially conscious and partially unconscious; inferred in given situation
shared intentionalityknowledge about motivations concerning behaviours that are common among people in a group
social axiomsgeneral beliefs/premises about one-self, the social and physical environment, and the spiritual world; assertions about the relationship between two or more entities/concepts; used to guide behaviour in daily living
tightness vs. loosenessdimension of cultural variability that refers to the variability within a culture of its members to norms; tight = less variability and more homogeneity; loose = more variability and more heterogeneity
universala psych process that is found to be true/applicable for all people of all cultures
universal psychological toolkita set of basic psych skills/abilities that people can use to meet needs; includes complex cognitive skills, language, emotions, and personality traits
valuesa trans-situational goal that serves as a guiding principle in the life of a person/group; motivate and justify behaviour and serve as standards for judging people, actions, and events