PSYC 314 Lecture Notes Chapters 13-14

blueghost's version from 2016-04-19 15:05

Section 1

Question Answer
aggressionany action intended to hurt others when the other person is motivated to avoid it
instrumental aggression long/short conditionsimmediate: opportunity for gain with high reward/low perceived risk; long-term: poverty or other challenging economic factors; perceive crime as primary means to resources/respect, norms foster aggression as a way to achieve resources
hostile aggress long/short conditionsimmediate: threat to self-esteem, status, respect, particularly in public areas, aggression to save face; long: repeated threats to self-worth or status
Instinct TheoryFreud; aggressive energy must come out somehow or will build up and create illness; society regulates instincts towards aggression; helps people turn energy into acceptable behaviour
Biological Theory aggressive impulses may be hereditary; some support in twin studies
evolutionary theorymales are most likely to be violent during peak reproductive years; male sexual jealousy as a major factor in homicidal violence in young men
culture of honoraffronts are met with violent retribution
culture of honor and the southsouthern men more willing to endorse violence when used to protect/answer an affront but NOT in general; headers --> reputation of someone who would respond to threats with violence was the way to protect wealth as it was portable and land was hard to police
cultural lag hypothesis cultural norms persist over time, even when original reasons have ceased to exist
pluralistic ignorancecultural norms are maintained through perceptions of what other people are like
groups and aggressiongroups are more aggressive than individuals in same situation;
Riches and Respect: Intergroup Conflictconflicts over respect/esteem more intractable than ones over material resources; groups frequently value respect over riches
realistic conflict theoryintergroup conflict is caused by competition among groups over limited resources
scapegoatinghostility caused by frustrating circumstances that are sometimes taken out on innocent members of other social groups; explains rise in prejudice when economy takes a downturn
Biased attributions for behaviour: in-groupattributions for in-group behaviour positively biased; aggressive actions are deemed reasonable responses to difficult circumstances
biased attributions for behaviour: out-groupnegatively biased for out-group attributions; aggressive actions--> evil nature and bad intentions; frequent failure to recognize fear lies behind out-group actions
impact of emotion and arousal on conflictemotion and arousal often makes things worse; simplistic thinking often found just before conflict escalation
competitive group expectationsself-fulfilling; better attack the out-group because if we don't, they will attack us; beliefs--> behaviour--> beliefs
simplistic thinkingthinking something is much simpler than it really is;
psychological theories of aggressiongenetics and biology create potential for aggression, but situations that evoke it and the targets towards which it is directed are acquired through experience; reinforcement, rewards/punishment ; acquisition of aggressive response tendencies
frustration-aggression theoryidea that frustration (the perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal) increases the probability of an aggressive response
social things that can increase frustrationdelay, goal proximity, unexpectedness of the frustration; can lead to increase in the probability of aggressive action
reciprocation and aggressionoften feeling like need to reciprocate after being provoked, UNLESS convinced the provocation was unintentional
inner causes of aggressionunpleasant moods; excitation transfer --> misattribution of arousal could increase aggression
aggressive stimulusan object that is associated with aggressive responses and whose mere presence can increase the probability of aggression

Section 2

Question Answer
prosocial behaviourdoing something good for someone or for society; builds relationships/allows society to function; includes helping others
reciprocityobligation to return in kind what another has done for us (whether direct or indirect)
fairness desirepeople want a system based on fairness/social exchange; sensitivity is present about being target of a threatening upward comparison; norms that promote fairness--> equality and equity
evolutionary psych: instincts and geneslikely to pass on any gene that further survival and increases the probability that we will produce offspring; genes that lower our chances for survival and production of offspring are less likely to pass one
kin selectionidea that behaviours that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection; can increase chances of genes being passed on by having children and ensuring genetic relatives have children; natural selection should favor altruistic acts directed toward genetic relatives
kin cooperationcommon to animals AND humans
altruistic rewarding predisposition to reward others for cooperative behaviour
altruistic punishmentpropensity to impose sanctions on non-cooperations
no true altruismindividual benefits in the long run from altruistic actions
social dilemmaa conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual will, if chosen by most people, have harmful effects on everyone
social dilemma: cooperatorsmaximize joint rewards received by both self and partner
social dilemma: competitorsmaximize their own gains relative to those of partner (want to do better than partner)
social dilemma: individualista maximize own gains, no concern for gains/losses of partner
empathythe ability to put oneself in the shoes of another person and to experience events/emotions the way that person does
empathy-altruism hypothesisthe idea that when we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help that person purely for altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain
mood and helpingmore willing to help when in a good mood; mood maintenance benefit
mood-maintenancewe offer to help to prolong our positive emotional state
negative-state reliefwhen we feel bad, we want to do good; people act on the idea that good deeds can cancel out bad deeds
negative-state relief hypothesisthe idea that people help in order to alleviate their own sadness and distress
who do we help?those we like, those who are similar to us, those who we think deserve it
issues with who we helpour own biases may influence our interpretations of deservingness
time and helpingtime pressure can conflict with intentions of helping those in need
economic well-being and helpingthe more well off, the less help provided
notion of simpatico and helpinga concern for well-being of others which is an important element in Spanish and Latin American cultures
culture and helpingindividualist cultures tend to exhibit more charitable and volunteering behaviour than collectivistic cultures
belief in a just worldattribution: deservingness; people essentially get what they deserve and life is basically fair; people with belief in a just world will help if they think those people deserve help
bystander effect people less likely to help when in the presence of others
steps to helpingnotice something is happening; interpret the meaning of the event; take responsibility for giving help; know HOW to help; provide help
obstacles to helpingself-concerns and distraction; ambiguity, relationship between attacker and victim, pluralistic ignorance; diffusion of responsibility; lack of competence to help; costs exceed rewards of helping; audience inhibition and worrying about how one will look

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