PSYC 314 Lecture Notes Chapter 12

blueghost's version from 2016-04-19 14:21

Section 1

Question Answer
need to belong powerful drive within human psyche; ability to form and maintain lasting relationships; failure to satisfy leads to health problems
relationship formationusually form relationships easily; reluctant to end relationships
2 ingredients of a relationshipregular social contact; close stable, mutual intimate contact
direct attractionrewards are received through interaction with other person
indirect attractionrewards associated with the presence of others (associating partner with a tone of a situation)
attraction involves perceived characteristics; needs, preferences, desires of person to whom we become attracted; rewarding experiences with another
marketplace theorywomen more likely to value status; men to value attractiveness; attractive women are more likely to marry financially/professionally successful men because being attractive helps the man like the woman too
evolutionary theorya lot of our behaviour comes about because it helps us propagate genes
support for evolutionary theorymen like younger women more than women like younger men (more years to produce children); women place greater emphasis on resources; differences like these found in wide cultural range
testosterone pros and consbetter suited for finding mate than maintaining families; high testosterone men are more exciting but less reliable, more likely to explore new places and less prone to stay at home, have a lower immune system response
body odor and immune systembody odor conveys info about immune system; people like those who have a different MHC compatibility

Section 2

Question Answer
factors in relationship formationenvironmental (proximity); individual (approachability, social skills); dyadic (self-disclosure, similarity, closeness and intimacy); situational (networks, geography)
social network an individual's array of close associates including friends and kin relations; can facilitate or impede friendship development
rules of relationshipshared beliefs among members of a culture about what behaviours friends should/should not perform
social penetration theorydevelopment of a relationship closes tied to systematic changes in communication, especially self-disclosure
self-disclosure varies by culture and gender; the process of revealing personal info to someone else
breadth of self-disclosurevariety of topics discussed
depth of self-disclosurepersonal significance of topics
reciprocity process in communication in which a person matches the other person's level of disclosure
responsiveness the extent of understanding, caring, support, and respect demonstrated by the target of disclosures
taboo topicssensitive matters that,in the opinion of the partners, may threaten the quality of their relationship
role of self-disclosureimportant in development, maintenance, and strengthening of interpersonal relationships; increases closeness and intimacy; signals commitment to relationship by indicating vulnerability and trust; "social glue"
progress of self-disclosureperipheral items told sooner and more frequently than private; reciprocal disclosure especially early in relationship, disclosure penetration quick at beginning and slower when getting into deeper disclosure
relationships in low relational mobilityinherently stable--less need to demonstrate commitment; new relationships are generally unavailable; negative reputation and exclusion cost great
relationships in high relational mobilitymust invest energy into forming/maintaining relationships; fundamentally fragile; forming and reforming relationships possible when finding more valuable partner; must demonstrate commitment to keep relationship
love dilemmasspecial attitude with behavioural/emotional components; different to different people; difficult to measure
love scale componentsattachment, caring, intimacy
love scale: attachmentthe desire for another's presence and emotional support
love scale: caringconcern for the other's well-being
love scale: intimacydesire for close, confidential communication
passional love typestate of extreme absorption with and desire for another; intense feelings; wide-spread physiological arousal; ignorance is bliss
passion progressionhits fast; logic pushed aside; can lead to premature commitment
companions love typebased on friendly affection and deep attachment due to extensive familiarity; less intense; knowing and forgiving; willing to work; endures after passion evaporates
Sternberg's Triangular Theory: passionfuels romantic feelings and desire for sexual interaction; similar to an addiction
Sternberg's triangular theory: intimacythe emotional component; sense of bonding; warmth, sharing, emotional closeness; willing to help and share private essence
Sternberg's triangular theory: commitmentthe cognitive aspect; conscious decision to love another; choice to maintain a relationship despite challenges
Triangular Theory Transition passionate love grows quickly and then declines; commitment and intimacy then grow; if they do not, relationship ends
attachmentintense emotional tie between two indivs; possible to experience attachment without love but not love without attachment; different styles and formation methods
secure attachmenteasy to get close to others, no worrying about abandonment
avoidant attachmentuncomfortable getting close, emotional highs and lows, jealousy, fear of intimacy
anxious/ambivalent attachmentseek intimacy but worry that others won't reciprocate or stay
interdependence theoryanalyzes the exchange and coordination of outcomes between interdependent partners
interdependence theory: rewardanything a person gains from an interaction
interdependence theory: costany negative consequence that occurs in an interaction or relationship
interdependence theory "equation"outcome = rewards - costs
standards for outcomescomparison level of past experiences; comparison level of alternatives (other currently available relationships)
Equality Rule for Fairnessall parties are equal
Equity Rule for Fairnessprofits are proportional to inputs
Assumptions of Equity Theoryindividuals try to maximize outcomes in a relationship; rewards can be maximized by evolving rules/norms about fairness; perceived inequity leads to distress and attempt to restore equity
comparison level (CL)the quality of outcomes a person believe he/she desires; reflects past experiences; our personal belief about what constitutes an acceptable relationship
comparison level for alternatives (CL-Alt)assessing how our relationship compares to others that are available
outcome below CL/high CL-altdissatisfied and not dependent --> leave
outcome above CL/low CL-altsatisfied and dependent --> stay
outcome below CL/low cl-altdissatisfied but dependent--> stay
outcome above CL/high cl-altsatisfied and not dependent--> unknown decision
Rusbult Investment Modelgreater the investment indivs have in a relationship, the less likely they are to leave, even if satisfaction is low/other alts look promising
satisfactioncomparing rewards to costs and seeing if this exceeds your CL
investmentsthings invested in a relationship that you can't take back if relationship ends
alternativesother person in environment that you could consider dating
lonelinesspainful feeling of wanting more human contact; little difference between lonely and unlovely (lonely have more difficulty understanding emotional states of others); bad for health

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