PSYC 314 Important People and Studies

blueghost's version from 2016-04-01 01:38


Question Answer
Miligram obedience studiessubject was to shock confederates if they gave a wrong answer; experimenter would tell subject to continue (had to) when he questioned continuing; results --> authority orders were crucial and not other factors like participant aggressiveness ; his conclusion--> human nature cannot stop a man from hurting someone else when the orders come from what is seen as perceived authority
stanford prison studyabout: prisoners blindfold and greeted by warden who told them seriousness of offense, prisoner began to have emotional issues 36 hours in; results --> study ended early, social roles so powerful they can take over personal identities; power arbitrarily afforded to certain groups can have impact on group dynamics
issues with Stanford prison studyno control group, no meaningful measurements, possibility that participants had violent tendencies to begin with
BBC Prison Research Questionwhat are the conditions under which people do and do not conform to allocated social roles
BBC Prison study aimcreate institution like prison to investigate behaviour of groups that are unique in resources, power, and status
BBC Permeability of Rolesguards chosen on reliability, trust, and initiative but if prisoners showed these guard like qualities they could be promoted on day three; movement seemed possible
BBC legitimacy of rolesplanned to actually say no difference between guards and prisoners on day three--> group differences were not legitimate
BBC Resultsprisoners began to challenge regime; break out occurred; new regime with guards and prisoners; had to end study because of well-being concern
Social ID and BBC Studyprisoners formed a large social id while guards did not
depression and BBC StudyPrisoners began with more depression but ended with less; guards had opposite--> social group influence?
Leon Festinger first to invent precise working of the powerful phenomenon of cognitive dissonance
Festinger and Carlsmith Boring Task Studyasked to lie about task enjoyment; participants had insufficient justification for lying (saying study was exciting when it was boring) leading to cognitive dissonance; showed self-persuasion, contradicted behaviorists belief that big rewards produce greater change ; when only given $1, must actually convince self it was fun to feel like telling truth and stop dissonance; $20 seemed like external reward for justification of lying
Asch Line Studiesasked which line is most similar in length to standard ; found that --> conformity increased as number of people in the group increased, but maxed at four or five people, 75% of subjects conformed to wrong answer at least once to avoid disagreeing
Sherif Light Studyparticipants estimated distance of light alone and then with others; people used each other as source of info and came to believe the group estimate was correct; why? people tend to conform to norm established by others in uncertain/ambiguous situations ; participants continued to give group answer even when alone after group part
Reno Library Patron Study parking lot was heavy littered or clean and a confederate would either do nothing, litter, or pick up trash; would the subject throw a paper which was on their car on the ground? Results: when confederate did nothing, there was no norm; when confederate littered, there was a descriptive norm from the confederate and in the littered environment more people threw paper on the ground; when c picks up litter, injunctive norm, there is a decrease in the amount of people who littered in both environments
Guests and Towels studynorm message (how other guests choose to reuse towels) resulted in less towels taken out of the room on first day
Energy Conservationtold people: Descriptive norms, information, environmental, financial, social responsibility ; results--> descriptive norms had most effect even though they were rated as least motivational by participants
Petrified Forest Studyused negative descriptive norm, positive descriptive norm, and injunctive norm to try to stop taking of wood; injunctive was most effective
Triplett's Studystudy children performing simple task either alone or with others; children performed better when in presence of others
Ant Studyobserved ants of different groups excavating soil; results--> ants took longer to begin when alone, moved more soil when worked in groups
Cockroach Studytaught cockroaches to learn a maze where they could escape light into a dark bottle; result--> learned maze faster when alone than when in a group ; replication results with simple/hard maze--> presence of others improved times in simple maze but worsened in difficult
Billiards Studygood players will benefit from others but poor ones will not; results --> good players increased performance when watched, poor players decreased performance
Social Loafing Maze Studysimple or complex maze with individual performance and then performance averaged with partner; results--> when averaged together the difficult maze was better than the easy one
Halloween Studykids wearing halloween costumes were more likely to take extra candy when in groups vs. alone; but when they first gave name, they did so to lesser amount; much less likely when identified

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