PSYC 314 Chapters 7-11 Vocabulary

blueghost's version from 2016-03-31 21:44

Section 1

Question Answer
attitudemental representation that summarizes an individual's evaluation of a particular person, group, thing, action, or idea
attitude changethe process by which attitudes form and change by the association of positive/negative info with the attitude object
persuasionthe process of forming, strengthening or changing attitudes by communication
explicit attitudethe attitude that people openly and deliberately express about an attitude object in self-report or by behaviour
implicit attitudeautomatic and uncontrollable positive/negative evaluation of an attitude object
knowledge functionthe way an attitude contributes to mastery by organizing, summarizing, and simplifying experience with an attitude object
instrumental functionthe way an attitude contributes to mastery by guiding our approach to positive objects and our avoidance of negative objects
social identity functionthe way an attitude contributes to connectedness by expressing important self and group identities and functions
impression management functionthe way an attitude contributes to connectedness by smoothing interactions/relationships
strong attitudea confidently-held extremely positive/negative evaluation that is persistent and resistant and that influences info processing and behaviour
ambivalent attitudean attitude based on conflicting negative/positive info
persuasion heuristicassociation of a cue that is positively/negatively evaluated with the attitude object, allowing the attitude object to be evaluated quickly and without much thought
evaluative conditioning the process by which positive/negative attitudes are formed or changed by association with positively/negatively valued objects
elaborationthe generation of favorable or unfavorable reactions to the content of persuasive appeal
metacognition thoughts about thoughts or about thought processes
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)a model of persuasion that claims that attitude change occurs through either peripheral route or a central route that involves elaboration and that the extent of elaboration depends on motivation and capacity

Section 2

Question Answer
foot-in-the-door techniquea technique for increasing compliance with a large request by first asking people to go along with smaller request, engaging self-perception processes
cognitive dissonancean unpleasant state caused by people's awareness of inconsistency among important beliefs, attitudes, or actions
insufficient justification effectattitude change that occurs to reduce the dissonance caused by attitude-discrepant behaviour that cannot be attributed to external reward/punishment
effort justification effectattitude change that occurs to reduce the dissonance caused by freely choosing to exert considerable effort or suffering to achieve a goal ; value more and more the goal for which you suffered
post-decision regret effectattitude change that occurs to reduce the dissonance caused by freely making a choice/decision; way to convince oneself that choice made was right
hypocrisy effectchange in behaviour that occurs to reduce the dissonance caused by freely choosing to publicly advocate a behaviour that one does not actually perform oneself
intentiona commitment to reach a desired outcome/behaviour
theory of reasoned actionthe theory that attitudes and social norms combine to produce behavioral intentions, which in turn influence behaviour
implementation intentiona plan to carry out a specific goal-directed behaviour in a specific situation
theory of planned behaviourthe theory that attitudes, social norms, and perceived control combine to influence intentions and thus behaviour; whether people feel capable of the action
habita repeated behaviour automatically triggered in a particular situation

Section 3

Question Answer
descriptive social normsagreed upon mental representations of what a group of people think, feel or do
injunctive social normsagreed upon mental representations of what a group of people SHOULD think, feel, or do
conformitythe convergence of individuals' thoughts, feelings or behaviour toward a social norm
private conformity private acceptance of a social norm; people are truly persuaded that the group is right and accept the group norms as own beliefs even when group is no longer physically present
public conformityovert behaviour consistent with social norms that are not privately accepted as correct; produces surface change
false consensus effectthe tendency to overestimate others' agreement with one's own opinions, characteristic, and behaviours; expect to see the world the same way others do; way to increase confidence in our understandings
informational influencethe process by which group norms are privately accepted to achieve or maintain mastery of reality
normative influencethe process by which group norms are privately accepted to achieve or maintain connectedness and a valued social identity ; satisfies need for connectedness
reference groupthe people accepted as an appropriate source of info for a judgement because they share the attributes relevant for making that judgment
group polarizationthe process by which a group's initial average position becomes more extreme following group interaction
pluralistic ignoranceoccurs when everyone publicly conforms to an apparent norm that no one in fact privately accepts ; a cycle that is self-fulfilling
groupthinkgroup decision making that is impaired by the drive to reach consensus regardless of how the consensus is formed

Section 4

Question Answer
deindividuation the psychological state in which group or social identity completely dominates personal or individual identity so that group norms become maximally accessible
norm of reciprocitythe shared view that people are obligated to return to others the goods, services, and concessions they offer to us
door-in-the-face techniquetechnique in which the influencer makes an initial request so large that it will be rejected, and follows it with a smaller request that looks like making a concession, making it more likely that the other person will concede in return
norm of social commitment shared view that people are required to honor their agreements and obligations
low-ball techniquetechnique where the influencer secures agreement with a request but then increases the cost of honoring the commitment
norm of obedience to authorityshared view that people should obey those with legitimate authority
reactancethe motive to protect or restore a threatened sense of behavioral freedom; common when people lose the opportunity to choose

Section 5

Question Answer
interdependenceeach group member's thoughts, emotions, and behaviors influence others'
social facilitation an increase in the likelihood of highly accessible responses, and decrease in the likelihood of less accessible responses, due to the presence of others
task interdependencereliance on other members of a group for mastery of material outcomes that arise from the group's task
social interdependencereliance on other members of the group for feelings of connectedness, social and emotional rewards, and a positive social identity
group socializationthe cognitive, affective, and behavioral changes that occur as individuals join and leave groups
ostracism being ignored and excluded from a group ; being this has profound effects on a person
social loafing the tendency to exert less effort on a task when an individual's efforts are unidentifiable part of a group than when the same task is performed alone
social compensation one group member working especially hard to compensate for another's low level of effort or performance
leadershipa process in which one or more group members are permitted to influence and motivate others to help attain group goals
contingency theory of leadershiptheories holding that leader behaviors can differ and that different behaviours are most effective in specific leadership situations
transformational leadershipleaders who inspire extreme devotion and emotional identification on the part of their followers, allowing them to have profound effects on their followers
powerthe ability to provide or withhold rewards/punishments from others

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