PSYC 314 Chapters 12-14 Vocabulary

blueghost's version from 2016-04-19 02:23

Section 1

Question Answer
exchange relationshipa relationship in which people offer rewards in order to receive benefits in return
close relationshiprelationship involving strong and frequent interdependence in many domains of life
lovethoughts, feelings, and actions that occur when a person wishes to enter or maintain a close relationship with a specific person
communal relationshiprelationship in which people reward their partner out of direct concern and to show caring
intimacya positive emotional bond that includes understanding and support
social supportemotional and physical coping resources provided by other people
commitment combined forces that hold the partners together in an enduring relationship
attachment stylepeople's basic securely attached, avoidant, or anxious orientation toward others in close relationships
romantic loveinvolves sexual feelings, a sense of intense longing for the partner, euphoric feelings of fulfillment and ecstasy when the relationship goes well, and anxiety and despair when it does not
accommodation the process of responding to a negative action by the partner

Section 2

Question Answer
aggression behaviour intended to harm someone else
conflictperceived incompatibility of goals between two or more parties
instrumental aggressionaggression serving mastery needs, used as a means to an end, to control other people, or to obtain valuable resources
hostile aggression aggression that is driven by anger due to insult, disrespect, or other threats to self-esteem or social identity
frustration-aggression theorytheory holding that any frustration--defined as the blocking of an important goal--inevitably triggers aggression
General Aggression Modeltheory that a person and situation factors influence people's cognition, emotions, and arousal, which in turn influence interpretations of the situation and decisions about aggression
realistic conflict theorytheory that inter-group hostility arises from competition among groups for scare but valued material resources
relative deprivation theorytheory that feelings of discontent arise from the belief that other individuals or other groups are better off
vicarious retribution members of a group who were not themselves directly harmed by an attack retaliating against members of the offending group
coalition formation occurs when two or more parties pool their resources to obtain a mutual goal they probably could not achieve alone
reactive devaluation perceiving a proposed solution to a conflict negatively simply because the out-group offers it
negotiation the process by which parties in conflict communicate and influence each other to reach agreement
superordinate goalsshared goals that can be attained only if groups work together

Section 3

Question Answer
altruismbehaviour intended to help someone else without any prospect of personal rewards for the helper
cooperation two or more people working together toward a common goal that will benefit all involved
egoismbehaviour motivated by the desire to obtain personal rewards
norm of social responsibilitynorm that those able to take care of themselves have a duty and obligation to assist those who cannot
diffusion of responsibility the effect of other people present on diminishing each individual's perceived responsibility for helping; one explanation for the bystander effect
bystander effectthe finding that the presence of more bystanders consistently decreases the likelihood of any one person giving help
negative-state relief modeltheory that most people hate to watch others suffer, so the ultimate goal of their help is not to aid the person in need for his/her sake, but to reduce the helper's own distress
empathy-altruism modeltheory that feelings of empathetic concern lead to a motive to help someone in need for his or her own sake
social dilemmaform of interdependence in which the most rewarding action for each individual will, if chosen by all individuals, produce a negative outcome for the entire group
trustthe expectation that others will act prosaically during a social interaction
social value orientationstable differences in the ways people act in social dilemmas (such as competitive or prosocial)