PSYC 314 Chapter 11

blueghost's version from 2016-04-01 00:33

Section 5

Question Answer
process lossany aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving
why process loss occursgroups might not try to figure out most competent member; most competent member has trouble disagreeing; communication problems
Unique Info lackgroups focus on info shared; ignore facts known to only some members
ways to combat unshared infodiscussions with length to get beyond what everyone already knows, assignments to specific areas of expertise
transactive memorycombined memory of two people that is more efficient than the memory of either individual singularly ; may combat unshared info because people may be able to learn who is responsible for what kinds of info (specialization) and can take time to discuss
risky shiftpart of group polarization; groups make riskier decisions than individuals; why? --> people gain new info from listening to others, people check how everyone feels and then take similar positive to theirs but a bit more extreme because want to be liked
effects of group polarization on positionsmajority position stronger after group discussion in which a minority is arguing against majority viewpoint because of informational and normative influences (size, amount of people saying argument, number who agree)
leadership behaviour typesdecision making/task performance (mastery) and enhancing cohesion/social interdependence (connectedness)
leader typestask leader and socio-emotional leader; now know one person can serve both functions or different people can perform them at different times
characteristics of leaders person or situationnature of leaders varies across situations; effects of leader behaviour vary --> socio-emotional leader behaviour consistently helps with group cohesion and morale while task focused leader behaviours influence performance in ways that depend on types of groups and situations
contingency theories of leadershipleader effectiveness depends on match between leader behaviour and demands of situations (leadership needs to be flexible with mix of different types of behaviours depending on situation)
situational controlability of leader to structure group performance on particular task
transformational leadershipcharismatic or transformational leaders go beyond task performance to change followers' lives; inspire devotion and emotional id; articulate inspiring vision for group and motivate followers toward collective goals
important transformational leader skillsconfidence and communication skills; showing optimism and care for members; not just based on qualities of leader but on match to situation
great person theoryidea that certain key personality traits make a person a good leader, regardless of situation
Leaders tend to be a bit more...intelligent, extraverted, confident, charismatic, socially skilled, driven by want for power, open to new experiences, and less neurotic but most characteristics only test modestly on correlation to leadership
who becomes leader stereotype influencesstereotypes about leadership influence --> people who talk a lot; those who nonverbally signal dominance; those who embody group norms (different for different types of groups)
who becomes leader characteristic influencesmales, tall people, older people; gender, age, and race
gender and leaderswomen better at connectedness; little different between genders on mastery of task performance ; men generally rated as better leaders by group members (matching of stereotype?)
race and leaderoverlap between race and stereotypes; whites seen as better suited to social leader positions, asians to math and engineering leadership
gendered raceasians seen as better suited to professions stereotypes as feminine; blacks as better to professions stereotypes as masculine
basic points of leadershipit is a process, not a person; process is dynamic and reciprocal; situational context is crucial ; importance of follower characteristics (needs, expectations, perceptions) and their responses
power psychologypeople can feel more powerful by imagining times in past where they have had power and even by assuming "power poses"
bad side of leadershipability to use influence in destructive ways; can produce failing performance and destroy cohesion and member satisfaction

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