Psyc 255 Quiz 4

amwages's version from 2017-09-25 01:07

Section 1

Question Answer
Chapter 4 is onBasic issues and concepts that are necessary for understanding the scientific study of behavior
Validity is...refers to truth or accuracy
3 types of validityConstruct, Internal, External
Construct Validityconcerns whether our methods of studying variables are accurate
Internal Validityrefers to the accuracy of conclusion about cause and effect
External Validityconcerns whether we can generalize the findings of a study to other population settings
A variable is...any event, situation, behavior, or individual characteristic that varies
Operational definitionthe set of procedures used to measure or manipulate it
Two important benefits of operational definitionForces scientists to discuss abstract concrete terms, and communicate their ideas with others
An important question that arises once a variable is operationally defined:How well does this match up with reality?

Section 2

Question Answer
Construct Validityrefers to the adequacy of the operational definition of variables
Example of Construct ValidityDoes the operational definition of a variable actually reflect the true theoretical meaning of the variable?
Four most common relationships found in researchpositive linear, negative linear, curvilinear, no relationship
Curvilear relationship can sometimes be referred to asNonmonotomic function
A numerical index of the strength of relationship between variable is calledCorrelation Coefficient
Where there is uncertainty there is...random variability
Two general approaches to the study of relationshipsnonexperimental and experimental
nonexperimental methodrelationships are studied by making observations or measures of the variables
experimental methodrelationships are studied by direct manipulation and control of variables
two problems with making causal statements when the non-experimental method is usedit can be difficult to determine the direction of cause and effect and researchers may face extraneous variables that may be causing an observed relationship
causal patterns in similarity and likingsimilarity causes people to like each other and liking causes people to become more similar
A third-variableany variable that is extraneous to the other two variables
Independent variablemanipulated variable
dependent variablemeasured variable
experimental controlvariables are kept constant

Section 3

Question Answer
External Validitythe extent to which the results can be generalized to other populations and settings
In the ________ is the independent variable manipulated in a natural settingfield experiment
participant variablescharacteristics of individuals such as age, gender, ethnic group, nationaity, birth order, personality, or marital status
Jean Piagetobserved behavior of his children and their ways of thinking and responses
Meston and Buss'sstudy on the motives for having sex