Psyc 255 Last Exam

amwages's version from 2017-12-04 15:54

Section 1

Question Answer
factorial designsdesigns with more than one independent variable
main effectinformation about the effect of each independent variable taken by itself
interactionif there is an interaction between two independent variable, the effect of one independent variable depends on the particular level of the other variable
analysis of varianceused to assess the statistical significance of the main effects and the interaction in a factorial design
simple main effectsexamines mean difference at each level of the independent variable
mixed factorial designcombination of independent and repeated measures designs
independent groups (between-subjects) designdifferent group of participants will be assigned to each of the four conditions
repeated measures (within-subjects) designthe same individuals will participate in all conditions

Section 2

Question Answer
single-case experimental designshave traditionally been called single-subject designs
reversal designsABA
multiple baseline designthe effectiveness of the treatment is demonstrated when a behavior changes only after the manipulation is introduced
quasi-experimental designsaddress the need to study the effect of an independent variable in settings in which the control features of true experimental designs cannot be achieved
one-group posttest-only designlacks crucial element of a true experiment:a control or comparison group

Section 3

Question Answer
history effectscaused by any confounding event that occurs at the same time as the experimental manipulation
maturationany changes that occur systematically over time
testingtesting becomes a problem if simply taking the pretest changes the participant's behavior
instrument decaybasic characteristics of the measuring instrument change over time
regression toward the meanlikely to occur whenever participants are selected because they score extremely high or low on some type of variable
nonequivalent control group design-employs a separate control group, but participants in the two conditions-the experimental group and the control group- are not equivalent
nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest designone of the most useful quasi-experimental designs
propensity scoreadvances in statistical methods have made it possible to simultaneously atch indivudals on multiple variable

Section 4

Question Answer
cross-sectional methodpersons of different ages are studied at only one point in time
longitudinal methodsame group of people are observed at different points in time as they grow older
sequential methodcompromise between the longitudinal and cross-sectional methods
cohorta group of people born at about the same time