Ps6 final part 2

eshapeesha's version from 2015-12-09 01:01


Question Answer
universal entitlementsbenefits govs provide to all citizens more or less equally, funded by taxes. some say these are wasteful bc a lot of money goes to relatively wealthy people who do not need the benefits.
social insuranceprovides benefits to categories of people who have contributed to a public insurance fund, usually to provide retirement pensions.
means tested public assistancesocial programs that provide benefits to individuals who fall below a specific income level
tax expenditurestargetted tax breaks for specific groups of citizens or activities designed to achieve social policy goals.
social democratic welfare statestates whose social policies strongly emphasize universal entitlements to achieve equality. through high tax and social insurance programs
christian democratic welfare statesstates whose social policies are based on the nuclear family with a male breakwinner designed to achieve income stabilization and mitigate market induced income insecurity through social insurance, benefits tied to contributions, sectoral based organizations under state's guidance
social insurancereplaces income when disrupted through unemployment and other misfortunes.
liberal welfare statesstates whose social policies focus on ensuring that all who can do so gain their income in the market, more concerned about preserving individual autonomy than reducing poverty or inequality. use means tested
protestants v catholics in relation to welfareprotestants have less sympathy for the poor
sweden welfare statesocial democratic welfare state, free public healthcare by general taxation, child allowance, free school, unemployment insurance, basic retirement pension for everyone
germany welfare statechristian democratic welfare state, purchasing health insurance is obligatory for all residents and costs are shared by employers and employees, run by ngos, child allowance, universities free to those who pass welfare exam, unemployment insurance and pensions covered through mandatory matching contributions
welfare state usaliberal welfare state, healthcare- medicare for people over 65, medicaid for those w low income, public edu from primary to high school w mandatory attendance and public education is subsidized by the state, means-tested food assistance, temporary income supplements, unemployment benefits payed for by state govs and funded through payroll tax. you recieve 40-50% wage for up to 6 months
reforms to german welafre systemneeded bc growing retired population. hartz iv- rather than allowing workers to collect full unemployment insurance indefinitely, gov limits to 12 months until unemployment benefits ii which is a standard rate. the unemployed must accept work that is 80% their previous wage, reduces costs and creates a more flexible labor market.
tax rate sweden50% spent on taxes, leading to low unemployment, low gdp growth, and a high percentage of women in the labor force. christian democacies have a little less of all these and liberal democracies have the least
diff welfare states ability to reduce povertysocial democratic have the greatest, lib least
conditional cash transfer programstarget poor, increase social investment by providing cash grants to families who send kids to school and the doctor, debit cards given to women and its decreasing child mortality due to vaccines, decreasing high school drop out rates
national health systemgovernment financed and managed, all citizens pay through separate insurance payment or taxes, pay income of doctors, have the best health records
market based health systeminsurance through employment, med care provided by for profit entities, gov doesn't guarantee access to health care for all. most expensive, and doesn't provide best care
example national health systemuk. works like a national hmo. british patients sign up w general practitioner of their choice who refers them to specialists if needed, paid for by taxes, private insurance can be used to bypass waiting lines for non emergency procedures, seeing specialists.
tragedy of the commonseveryone acts selfishly bc they assume that they will be the only ones and it wont matter so no one benefits. there is a conflict between short term welfare of the individual and common welfare of society. solution- private property, gov regulations, taxes.
cap and tradecompanies can buy as many vouchers as they want causing environemental problems.
national health insurance systemgovernment mandates that virtually all buy insurance, typically allows and encourages multiple, private insurance providers, gov regulates the system, setting or at least limiting premiums and payments to med providers. ex-germany
germany's health insurance systemall residents must buy health insurance through sickness plans- non profit employer/employee assoc, unemployed buy plans with costs covered by state, choose among 150-200 plans. costs contained through national negotiations between sickness plants, regional physicians assocs, and drug companies- german corporatism
market based private insurance system exampleusa, w obamacare which seeks to expand insurance coverage to 95% and reduce overall costs by the government mandating that nearly all citizens get insurance, helping create statewise markets for those without employment based insurance so its more affordable, increase regulation of private insurers. employers use hmo plans throughout the company,
results of different health systemsnhs best and market based worst.
catholicism results in what kind of wellfare statechristian democratic
germany's two and a half party systemglobalization and european unification threatened germany's neocorporatist system, weakening labor unions ties w parties. declining religious ties and new social movements have created new parties producing coalition govs, neocorporatist interest group system has declined bc declining power for peak associations---> pluralist system more flexible bc decline of org doesnt change organizatio itself, since no group has access to gov.
dominant party system indiafrom 1947-77 the inc party used broad based support in fptp voting system to win power. shift to multiparty national system w each state having 2 parties and coalition gov nationwide, but smd produces 2 party contests in many states. civil society- language, caste, and religious groups more important than sectoral groups
britain 2 party systeminternal battles in labor party have made it so a third party has always survived though the electoral system prevented it from winning many seats. there is overall western declining support for major parties and declining traditional interest group influence
brazil multiparty systemweak parties have made policy making difficult and accountability limited. party strength recently rising but corruption and weak parties continue to exist. great participation, pt has allowed poor citizens greater access to gov than ever before, civil society protests after econ growth levels off
5. SMD-majoritarian (France)a first round election is open to all registered parties. if a candidate for a legislative district wins a majority of the votes in the first round, they are elected. if not there is a runoff election berween the top 2 candidates producing a majority winner. so, 2 parties would support whoever they feel is most popular making for a right wing party composed of 2 others and a left wing party ontrolled by 2 others creating a 2 party system
demonstation effectwhen democracy arises in one place its likely to also inspire other places nearby to do the same
semi authoritarian regimescontain elements of democracy and authoritarianism, usually transitioning to democracy, election fraud but attempt at democratic legitimac

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