PS101 Social Psych and Disorders

achapss's version from 2016-12-19 02:12

Section 1

Question Answer
Implicit Personality Theory labels placed on groups of people based on beliefs and in terms of schemas
Fundamental Attribution Error overestimate role of dispositional characteristics and underestimate the role of outside factors and the environment
Actor-Observer Theory different conclusion than if it were to happen to self vs other person and relate it to disposition of person
Self Serving Bias when you do something successful you relate it to your own ability and failure is attributed to the fault of others
How can behavior lead to attitude?Cognitive Dissonance
How can attitude lead to behavior?if the attitudes are extreme or frequently expressed, formed via direct exposure, have prior knowledge,anticipate a specific outcome
Attitude a learned tendency to evaluate something in a specific way that can be positive, negative, or ambivalent
A B C Model Affective (how we feel) Behavioral (how we act) Cognitive (how we think)
Cognitive Dissonance combatting emotions and behaviors that lead to a specific attitude based on an innate desire to keep consistency in life
Prejudice the feeling that a group is influencing, impacting, or taking something away from you
Stereotypesbeliefs that people are a certain way that can be positive or negative
Outgroup Homogeneity Effect associating in us vs them and believing that the them is all of the same and that our own group is diverse
Realistic Conflict Theory history of actual conflict determines degree of discrimination or prejudice
Social Identity Theory emphasizes three social cognitive processes to come to a prejudice 1. social categorization 2. social identity (group ID) 3. social comparison(superiority of groups)
Normative Social Influence conformity based on a desire to be liked and thought normal in society
Informational Social Influence conformity as a result of an ambiguous situation in which you lack knowledge
Individualistic Culture culture that values the individual and their own ideals
Collectivist Culture culture that is based on the better good of the group
Obedience Paradigm why we obey destructive authority figures and how punishment effects learning
What factors increase bystander helping?FeelGoodDoGood effect, guilt. modeling others behavior, perceiving others as deserving, knowing how to help, personal relationships
Bystander Effect more people observe something and are less likely to help someone due to diffusion of responsibility, informational/normative social influence, big city small town effect
Social Loafingease with group task reduced when the group is highly valued, familiar, doing a special task
Socialization Effect increased performance based on a large crowd of something that is well known or practiced
Deindividuation diffusion of self and responsibility and tendency to act out of character due to the anonymity given by a large crowd
Mental Disorder based on impairment of life and increased distress
What are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder, grossly disorganized behavior
What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?amotivation, avolition, flattened and blunted, lack of emotional range
Psychosis state of mania experiencing a break from reality
diathysis life stress that is biological
What are the factors of major depressive disorder?anhedonia, withdrawal, suicidality, sleep and appetite impairment, can lead to psychosis
anhedonia inability to experience emption as you once had
initial insomniacan't fall asleep
middle insomniawake up in middle of night and then go back to sleep
terminal insomniawake up really early in the morning and can't fall back asleep
Hypomaniaconfident and productive
True Maniaintense focus but not on anything in particular
What are the symptoms of mania?burst of happiness, irritable, risky and poor judgement, can't sleep
Bipolar 2 Disorderno full manic episodes but temporary mania, long and severe bouts of depression
Cyclothymic Disorder never fully manic or depressed back and forth between dysythmia and hypomania
Distal Depressionpast suicide attempt, current psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, abused as a child
Proximal Depressionmood variability, parent/relationship/life issues, major loss, sexual orientation issue, recent suicide attempt
Dysythmiasymptoms for greater than one year, the gateway disorder usually lasts for about four years, depressed mood, somatic complaints, non suicidal, moderate dysfunction
Major Depressive Disordersymptoms of greater than two weeks, lasts for around 7-9 months, dysphoria, anhedonia, irritable, major somatic complaints, serious dysfunction and possible suicide
What are the psychosexual stages of Freudian development?oral, anal, phallic, oedipal complex, genital, latency
Insecure attachementavoidant, resistant, ambivalent
What does the insecure attachment element of avoidant mean?the child is hard to comfort upon return and is very angry
Bottom up processingtaking elements apart to understand
Top Down Processingusing the information you already know to analyze the entire picture
PET Scanuse of a radioactive tracer to target neurotransmitters
Limbic Systemold mammalian brain "emotion seat" hypothalamus, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala
Piaget's Theorybelief that cognitive development is constantly active and encounters assimilation and accommodation
What are the stages of piagets theory?Sensorimotor, pre operational, concrete operational, formal operational
Sensorimotor Stagefirst stage of piagets theory from birth to age two, object permanence and sensing and manipulating objects
Pre-Operational Stagesecond stage of piagets theory from age 2-7, symbolic thought and egocentrism
Concrete Operational Stagethird stage of piagets theory from 7-11 years old conservation of matter and mass
Formal Operational11 years and up deeper understanding and development

Section 2

Question Answer
DualismDescartes mind and soul function separately from the body
Determinismassumes all physical events are determined by others and the nervous system
Empiricismknowledge is best acquired through observation
StructuralismWundt beginning of psychology, systematic structure of the adult mind and breaking down through introspection
Functionalismunderstanding the nature of human experience and adaptation to function
PsychoanalysisFreud catharsis and the unconscious mind
Behaviorismrelationship between a stimulus and a response
Gestalt Psychologythe whole perception is an active process and developed through bringing together sensory elements
Humanistic PsychologyMaslow, free will and fulfillment of human potential
Acetylcholinememory, motor function, low in those with Alzheimer's and ALS
Serotoninmood regulation and obsessive thinking low levels correlate with aggression
Dopaminethought process and movement and mood, limbic system cognitive symptoms of depression
Norepinephrinemood, arousal, movement, physiological symptoms of depression
Motion Parallaxmonocular factor of movement where things in the distance seem to be moving slow while you're moving fast ex: train
What are the elements of non movement in monocular factors?eye muscle (accommodation) and pictoral cues
Gestaltwhole form
Fixed Ratioreinforcement based on number of predetermined occurrences of behavior increasing behavior at a rapid rate
Variable Ratioreinforcement is random in relation to occurrences of behavior and the behavior tends not to extinguish ex: slot machines
Fixed Intervalbased on a predetermined time behavior increases at that time
Variable Intervalreinforcement at an unpredictable time superstitious behavior
E.. Tolmancognitive perspective, maps and latent learning
Latent Learningwithout reinforcement formation of cognitive maps
Banduracognitive based observational learning on four phases witnessing, remembering, ability to reproduce, motivation gained to carry out what was observed
J. Garciaecological perspective acquired taste aversion, biological preparedness, instinctive drift
Retroactive Interferencenew information interrupts the retrieval of old information, sometimes displaces old information
Proactive Interferenceold information gets in the way of new information or learning
Thalamusregulation of sleep and wakefulness
Hypothalamushomeostatic actions and processes
Electroencephalograph EEGelectrodes on head to measure brain activity in real time
Parietal Lobesomatosensory area
Frontal Lobemoderates limbic system motor and association cortex control and planning
Temporal Lobeauditory cortex interpret sound and speaking
Narcolepsyuncontrollable intrusion of REM sleep due to neurogenerative disorder in the brain mechanisms fall asleep at random times
B.F. Skinnerfather of operant conditioning skinner rat box
Pavlovian Conditioningclassical conditioning association between two stimuli
Operant Conditioninglearning to associate behavior with consequence changing behavior
Unconditioned Response (UCR)an unlearned physiological response
Conditioned Response (CR)a learned response
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)a stimulus that is learned to be responded to NS + UCS = CS
Neutral Stimulusdoes not initially elicit response but is learned to be associated
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)an unlearned stimulus response or reflex that is automatic
Two Factor Learningtheory of avoidance that combines classical and operant conditioning
Information Processing Modelencoding, storage, retrieval
Parallel Distributive Processingconnecting old and new information
Suppression vs. RepressionRepression is unconscious suppression is conscious
Persistent Disruptive Disorderdepression and dysthymia long periods of depression with some lucid days
What is the most important element of randomized clinical trials?they avoid and constantly test for spontaneous remission
What factors are thought to cause schizophreniaabnormal brain chemistry dopamine hypothesis, environmental factors flu epidemic of mothers
Sensory Memoryiconic and echoic large capacity briefly stores fleeting memory
Implicit Memorylong term memory memory on "how to" highly complex Procedural
Explicit Memorylong term memory semantic and episodic
Corsicob Syndromeamnesia caused by mass alcohol consumption
Law of EffectThorndike and puzzle box with cats behavior strengthened with a satisfying consequence
Semantic Memoryexplicit declarative and vernal non personal factual information
Episodicexplicit declarative memory of autobiographical facts
Retrograde amnesiacan't retrieve old memories temporarily common amnesia
Anterograde Amnesiadementia, can't form new memory
Hippocampuscreates long term memory
What attribution styles are risk factors for depression?internal - dysfunctional
Technical Eclecticismblending together styles of psychotherapy
Psychoanalysts theories and goalssource is unconscious goal is to fix with free analysis to make conscious
Behaviorists theories and goalssource is inappropriate conditioning goal is to fix with remodeling and reforming
Cognitive Therapists theories and goalsissue is negative thoughts and feelings fix with replacement of maladaptive thinking
Solomon Aschline conformity experiments
Pupil and Irispupil controls amount of light and iris is colored muscle
What does the central core of the brain stem include and what is it calledold reptilian brain pons medulla cerebellum RAS
Antipsychotic Drugsreduction of dopamine schizophrenia treatment
Parkinsonsincreased tremor due to lack of dopamine
Ponssensory information and species specific patterns working with medulla
Cerebellumfine tune of movement
Medullaessential life processes
Expressive Aphasiabroca speech area, inability to articulate but can still understand
Social Cognitive Perspective of PersonalityBandura, Self System efficacy and esteem
Five Factor Model of Personality Developmentopenness to experience, neuroticism, extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness
Huntington's Chroeagenetic tremors
Receptive Aphasialoss of language comprehension can hear but not recognize damage to wernickes area
Expressive Aphasiatotal or partial loss in memory issues finding and articulating
Self conceptideal vs real self due to conditional and unconditional regard
Permissive Indulgent Parentinghigh responsiveness low control
Permissive Indifferent Parentinglow control and responsiveness
Binocular Factorstwo eyes, retinal disparity and convergence
L Dopaparkinsons drug elevates dopamine production
Induced Motionsomething stationary seems to be moving but typically isn't ex moon and clouds

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