Ps midterm study sheet

eshapeesha's version from 2015-10-20 21:50


Question Answer
comparative politics compares power and decision making across countries
hypothesisan idea you can test with a cause and effect
statean ongoing administrative apparatus that develops and administers laws and generates and imprelements public policy in a particular territory. has territory, sovereignty, and legitimacy
government group of people controlling the state at a given time
regimerules that govern
legitimacyrecognized right to rule, inc traditional legitimacy, charismatic, and rational-legal legitimacy
external sovereigntyhave power and recognized by other countries
internal sovereigntyhave power within state
bureaucracya large set if appointed officials whose function is to implement laws, as directed by executive
weberstate is a monopoly on legitimate use of physical force within a given territory
nation large aggregate of people united by common descent, hist, culture, and language
theory origins of modern state in war threat of war leads to greater development and preparation. states have a large, coordinated army will win, states that can extract more resources (esp taxes) better off, voluntary soldiers better
theory of origins of modern state in econ structuresstrong states have more economic development, greater potential growth if gov supports, states must protect property rights, states lower transaction cost.
origins of modern state through diffisionmost states diffuse bc colonialism, or bc they know they have to. highly militarized bc concerned about west.
failed statea state whose political or economic system has become so weak that the government is no longer in control.
failed state index10= worst off, 0= best off, includes social, pol, econ indicators
governance indicatorsVoice and Accountability, Political Stability, and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory, Quality, Rule of Law, Control of Corruption
resource cursehave 1 resource and dont need anything else, causes conflict and lack of progression
magna cartastates that king needs a reason to tax, freedom from arbitrary imprisonment, royals cant intervene in catholic church, assembly of barons can dethrone king.
otto von bismarkunifies german states through force to unite prussia, coordinates econ
glorious revolution dethrones monarchy, shift of power from monarch to parliament, est participatory democracy
indian congress partylead by ghandi, get independence from british and rule india for a while, based on clientelism--> corrupt.
fascismeverything functions for the benefit of the state, uses corporatism- 1 group rep entire group of people. inc germany, italy
liberal democracycompetition, participation, civil and political liberties, separation of power.
social democrcyliberal deomcracy, more centralized
participatory democraryliberal democracy, less centralized.
socialism/ communismussr, inevitable revolution of proletariat,
civil societysphere of organized, nongov, nonviolent activity by groups, esp interest groups.
modernizing authoritarianismauthoritarian mechanisms to achieve successful econ development. institutionalized rule under military gov. ex- brazil, china
neopatrimonial authoritarianismnigeria, rule based on personal ties and favors, clientelism, claims to function for econ development, always corruption.
semi authoritarianismhybrid regime in which opposing parties can exist, rigged elections. many post soviet union collapse.
theocracyrule by religious authority, state serves to ensure gods word. ex- iran in which pahlavi dynasty got dethroned by khomeini
ethnic groupshare culture
primordialismidentity groups are innate through ancestry
instrumentalismrational and self interested elites shape our identity through the things they support and fund.
constructivismsocieties make choices together to create identity.
instrumentalism in black lives mattercnn reported with absolute rather than relative numbers, need to correct for size of population when using statistics.
political saliencydegree of political importance
cross cutting cleavagesoccurs when an individuals membership in one social group does not determine how others will define them
polarizing cleavagesexist when different social cleavages align with and reinforce each other.
relative depravationrelative to another group, 1 group is not being treated fairly.
security dilemmaactions by a state intended to heighten its security, such as increasing its military strength or making alliances, can lead other states to respond with similar measures, producing increased tensions that create conflict, even when no side really desires it
cultural nationalismnational unity based on a common cultural characteristic that only certain people share (ex- germany jus sanguinis)
civic nationalismnational unity and purpose based on commonly held pol beliefs.
jus solicitizenship based on where born, france/ usa
jus sanguiniscitizenship based on blood
consociationalismdemocratic system designed to ease ethnic tensions via recognizing the existence of specific groups and granting some share of power in the central government to each, usually codified in specific legal or constitutional guarantees to each group.
centripetal approachsolves ethnic conflict by giving pol leaders and parties incentives to moderate their demands.
federalismcentral and state share power, power not given to central given to states.
keynes povmarkets may revive naturally in the long run, but the gov needs to do defecit spending to encourage it, and then pay back the debt once the economy revives.
essential roles of state in econproviding security, public goods, intervention to correct market failures and externalities, prevention or regulation of monopolies
public goodsclean air, health care, things expected from gov.
monetarismstates should influence econ by managing money in circulation through interest rates
neoliberalismgrowth and industrialization driven by exports,
isi, import substitutioncharge a lot for foreign goods. used by asian tigers.
market economydecisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system.
command economyeconomic system in which the means of production are publicly owned and economic activity is controlled by a central authority that assigns quantitative production goals and allots raw materials to productive enterprises.
fiscal policythe means by which a government adjusts its spending levels and tax rates to monitor and influence a nation's economy.
monetary policycentral bank influences nation's money supply
comparative advantageThe ability of an individual, a firm, or a country to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than competitors.
structural adjustment programconsist of loans provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) to countries that experienced economic crises.
deficit spendingwhen gov has no money but keeps spending, keynes
liberal market economygov generally sets laws for firms to follow, as long as firms stay within these laws they can do whatever they like. ex- america
social market economywest germany, combines social programs in gov with freedoms of liberal market econ
developmental stateA developmental state is characterized by having strong state intervention, as well as extensive regulation and planning. east asian countries for ex

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