Ps 7 midterm study guide

eshapeesha's version from 2016-04-29 00:09

week 1-2

Question Answer
international relationsstudy of interactions among states and the study of nonstate actors that influence states. it is a polyglot subject meaning it pulls from several areas of social science
supranationalhold power among nations or regions (UN)
subnationaldomestic (interest groups, unions)
transnationalacross nations (terrorist groups, amnesty int)
politicswho gets what, when, how.
positive study vs normative studypositive= what is, normative study= what should be
int relations main issues and goalhow much war is necessary, how much cooperation can we expect, how can us limit exposure to international war. international relations aims to reduce or mitigate consequences of unnecessary war.
theorygeneral phenom that describes and explains causes or effects of classes of phenomena to inform expectations of what will happen next and what future foreign policy will be.
state of the world concerning wealth and povertyecon disparity within and between countries.
state of the world concerning war and peaceunprecedented peace rn, but there is civil conflict and regular exposure to violence bc there have been many civil wars since the cold war and they have been longer and more deathly.
state of the world concerning rights and limitations and obligationsincreasingly democratic, outside involvement increasing, care more about freedom than sovereignty.
whats a state? (both)weber- population, territory, monopoly force. montevido- population, territory, government, capacity for relations.
international community is governed throughanarchy- absence of a sovereign authority willing and able to enforce order.
external sovereigntymutual recognition of internal authority, pledge of non interference in others' domestic affairs. its a self help system in which you provide domestically and maintain security externally.
powerhow states get what they want. can be in the form of brute force, or relational power- ability to get someone else to do something they would not otherwise do through bargaining and negotiation (mutual adjustments), or something other than what you'd do independently, or structural power- ability to effect change due to your place in a system and the structure of the system.
how to measure powercinc score, which measures brute and relational factors. including military expenditures, military personelle, energy expenditures, total population, urban population, and iron and steel production. the top 3 are us, china, india. not the best way to measure bc over accounts for population and bigness, nuclear weapons not inc or membership on security council.
globalizationtrade and technology cause the diminution of the state
clash of civilizationsstruggles along civilizational lines will characterize most conflicts
new world orderthe rise of un and international organizations as the colf war rivalry subsides
democratic peacestruggles between democracies and autocracies or 2 autocracies will characterize conflict.
pan regionseurope, north america, east asia, will come to dominate international politics.
statesstates will remain dominant
ww1power increased pre war bc dedicating more resources to military, allies- gb, france, us; central- germany. germany got destroyed and us did alright bc war not fought on us soil and us on winning side.
ww2, who, who wins, how long is peaceallies- france, uk, us, sovier union; axis- germany, italy, japan. us does best bc the war wasnt on us soil. 2 yrs after ww1 ends the cold war began
cold warus v soviet union; biggest period of decolonization within great britain and france and japan causing them to have worstened economies, ends w the implosion of the soviet union into 15 countries
post cold war china powerrise in power bc tech, weapons, currency control (econ based), industry and development.
post cold war us poweramerica's power recently declined bc low population, low steel production due to outsourcing,
soft powerwhen people copy you bc they want to be like you, attractive power.
levels of analysisshow where evidence lies. (parimonious) first image- how leaders will act according to their own interest, second image- gov and structure of the state (domestic politics), third image- system, international politics. (complex)
first level of analysisthe individual. includes discission of human nature, personality, psychology, and bureaucracy- small group that declares war and peace. individuals matter most in instances of concentrated power, dynamic environments, and institutional conflict. critiques- assumes human nature constant, people are necessarily complex, structure overwhelms other factors.
second level of analysisthe state. discusses democracy or autocracy, assumes that internal circumstances within country cause external conflict or external dictates internal, also deals w national culture- theory of auth personality, organizational structure (balance of power in usa)
third level of analysisall individuals will behave the same way in the same situation, so situation drives war.
walt believes what system is most stablebipolar, multipolar is risky bc dont know enemy.
realist assumptionsanarchy on the supranational level, statism- a political system in which the state has substantial centralized control over social and economic affairs., and security dilemma- each country increases military, making others feel less safe so they do the same, etc etc upward spiral.
morgenthau's beliefsdoesn't believe people can be moral --> realistic is safer than idealistic. core concepts- states, goal driven, anarchy, self help , discuss security and war,
realismpolitics governed by laws based on human nature, interest in terms of power

week 3-4

Question Answer
iraq war analyzed at each levelindividual- hussein evil, hussein irrational, bush vendetta. state- caused by us national security omnipresence, iraq state sponsor terror, oil dependence, weapons proliferation, and progressive democracy in the middle east. system- un enforcement, us unipolarity, humanitarian norms
realismcore concepts- states are goal driven, anarchic, use self help, and are security focused
moregenthau's political realismobjective, identifiable political law; interest defined in terms of power; interest and power not fixed in meaning; inherent tension between moral and political action; no gov/ideology embodies moral law; realism's difference is profound
big action by countries taken tokeep power, acquire power, or demonstrate power
classical realistmix all 3 lenses
neo liberalist/ modified structural realistfocus on econ
neo realist (defensive and offensive)offensive neo lib- international system encourages offensive strategy because anarchism leads to insecurity, and only by being the strongest can a state be secure.
defensive neo lib- condition of anarchy is underdetermining. It creates situations in which measures meant to create security, including aggression, increase the insecurity of others, thereby creating a more dangerous situation that encourages others to balance against one and to contemplate first strikes. To gain security in many instances, states are best served by signaling restraint rather than aggression, though aggression may be necessary in some instances.
balanced system according to waltzbipolarity
unbalanced system according to waltzunipolarity and multipolarity
what impacts balance of powerstructure dictates self help, threat always exsits within power, states seek power as a means to security, balanced systems are stable, unbalanced systems are war prone


Question Answer
stag huntcoordination game (best if everyone coordinates/defects, worst if no one does or if there's a mix) options- all cooperate and capture stag (best for all), chase rabbit while others cooperate (less food for u) , all chase rabbit (not that many rabbits so not that much food), cooperate while others chase rabbit (cant get stag so hungry)
prisoner's dilemmamixed motive sitation (if u tell and they squeel, they get punished. if neither tells, neither punished. if both tell, medium) security dilemma is an example
security dilemma severe whenoffensive and defensive are indistinguishable and in instances of offensive dominance.
chicken gamemutual aversion (two cars coming at eachother and both counting on other to swerve away)
cooperation more likely in security dilemma whenincrease cost of defection and decrease reward for swindling, increase reward for cooperation and decrease cost of swindle, increase expectation both sides will cooperate.
sanctioning probleminfo about defection, ability to focus retaliation on defectors, sufficient will to sanction. comes up a lot in privatization and regimes.
deadlockopposition. nothing to cooperate on, to win you both have to loose.
realists thoughtthink in terms of power, pessimistic about cooperation among states, esp concerning security. no permanent allies, just permanent interests.
liberalist thoughtcharacter of states dictates international relations. human nature inherently good, war not inevitable, war caused by inadequate or corrupt social institutions or misunderstandings among leaders, believe war can be gotten rid of through insitutional change and collective action. 3 core assumptions- primacy of societal actors, representation and state preferences, create foreign policy, interdependence and international system.
3 variants of liberalismliberal pacifism- schumfter says liberal states (democratic and capitalist) are inherently un warlike while imperialists are; liberal imperialism- espoused by macchiavelli, says liberal countries and imperialist and expansionist bc they try expanding their ideas. liberal internationalism says peace will come w democracy. 3 articles for peace- republican constitution, law of nations founded on federation of states, law of world citizenship limited to universal hospitality.
issues w democratic peace hypothesishow we define democracy not compelling, could be alliances not democratic status, is peace really peace or still conflict but not war? democracies fight covert wars against each other.
what makes people think democracies are peaceful1. inherently more pacific- widely rejected theory bc democracies go to war w other autocracies. but popular opinion does increase the chances of war prone leaders not being elected. 2. democratic institutions are less warlike with one another bc when power spreads among organization such organizations pull leaders back from conflict. this only works when looking at democracies, checks make it harder for democracies to go to war. this suggests that democracies should be less prone to war w autocracies when democracies are the ones who intitiate war w autocracies. 3. democratic norms- democracies have expectations of other democracies based on domestic policy. 4. foundation for perpetual peace- kant. free trade, democratic government, and international institutions cause perpetial peace bc free trade causes mutual dependence, institutions generate trust, transparency, sanction; and democratic government.
democracy definitionstate which allows a significant portion of its population to vote in contested elections with institutions that have been in power for 3 yrs.
interstate warnon accidental public conflict between 2 recognized states which causes at least 1000 fatalities.
criticisms of democratic peacespurious relationship, no causal mechanism, definitional problems.


Question Answer
according to classical/ neo classcial whats prevents cooperation and coordinationhuman character, state interest, bad gov, structure.
do classical realists believe cooperation is likely or unlikelyunlikely
offensive neo realism looks through which lensethird level
whats prevents cooperation and coordination offensive neo realismcommon interests are exceedingly rare, inhenetly zero sum.
is cooperation liekly or unlikely neo realismhighly unlikely
defensive neo realism lensethird level
defensive neo realism what precents cooperation and coordinationcircumstances dictated by the structure of the system
is cooperation likely or unlikely ( defensive neo realism)unlikely but not impossible, more likely in economics than security, fragile when achieved.
neoliberalism lensethird level
neo liberalism what prevents cooperation and coordinationperceptions, lack of trust, transparency, enforcement
is cooperation likely or unlikely neo liberalismmore likely than most relaists expect especially under certain conditions (econ > security) but not guaranteed, more durable. occurs bc of self interest. not guaranteed but can be durable.
liberalism lensesecond level
liberalism what prevents cooperation and coordinationinstitutional misperception of the will of the people
liberalism cooperation likely?more likely than relaists bc natural harmony, may be possible to eliminate war. institutions facilitate cooperation and prohibit illegitimate coercion

Recent badges