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Pronomi congiuntivo Conjunctive Pronouns

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kidupani's version from 2017-05-06 01:41

 

Buongiorno!
for more about prepositions and definite articles, see Preposizioni semplici e articolati
Indicative verbs include the Present Indicative (Presente), Imperfect (Imperfetto), Passato Prossimo, Passato Remoto,Trapassato Prossimo, Trapassato Remoto, Futuro Semplice, Futuro Anteriore.

Conjunctive Pronouns: co-joined with the verb

Question Answer
Lo guardate (il film)?Did you see it? it> il film
Non desidero comprarla.I don't wish to buy it.
Dobbiamo comprare loro le scarpe.We have to buy the shoes for them.
Eccomi!Here I am!
Non la voglio vedereI do not want to see her, (LIT: not her I want to see)
Non voglio vederlaI do not want to see her, (LIT: not I want to see her)
Lo faccio cantareI am having him sing (special meaning for Fare + infinitive using a pronoun)
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Pronouns in italian constructions (literal):

Question Answer
it you did see?Lo guardate?
not I desire to buy itNon desidero comprarla
we have to buy to them the shoesDobbiamo comprare loro le scarpe
Here is meEccomi
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Where to place the conjunctive pronoun A:

Question Answer
with indicative, conditonal, subjunctive verbsprecede the verb
with negative/ indicative, conditional, subjunctivebetween non and verb
used in front of compound tense with past participlesthe past participle is changed to agree in number and gender of pronoun
used alone with a past participlealways follow and attach to it (2.3-proudfoot)
with reflexive verbsreflexive pronoun follows the same pattern as the other pronouns In compound tenses, always conjugated with essere
with infinitive verbs (without a modal verb)follow the verb, drop final "-e" and attach to end of it, except for "loro"
with infinitive verbs (with a modal verb)either precede the modal verb or follow the infinitive verb, drop final "-e" and attach to end of it, except for "loro"
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Where to place the conjunctive pronoun B:

Question Answer
with adverb, "ecco"always follow and attach to it
the pronouns "loro/Loro"always follows the verb and never attaches
with imperative verbs (lo, la ,li, le forms) in "command" toneprecede the verb
with imperative verbs (ti, ci, vi forms) in "strong" tonefollow and attach to the verb, sometimes adding extra consonant.
with negative imperative "command" and "strong" tonescan either precede or follow "non" depending on strength needed to convey command
with gerund verbfollow and attach, except for "loro" which follows but is not attached
with a noun object needing special emphasisthe pronoun will follow the noun object, precede the verb and subject(which follows the verb)
mi, ti, si, ci, vi with another direct object pronoun lo, la, li, le, nedrop the final -i or -e, and become me, te, se, ce, ve and follow all rules above
gli, le with another direct object pronoun lo, la, li, le, nechange to glie, and combine to be glielo, gliela, glieli, gliele, gliene and follow all rules above
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Accusative, Direct Object Pronouns:

NB: lo, la, li, le (and ne) when used in front of compound verbs agree with past participle of the compound verb (taking avere)
EnglishItalian
memi............ m' + vowel
him, itlo............ l' + vowel
her, itla............ l' + vowel
us or "it" in some instances (see note)ci............ c' + "i" or "e" .......... ("it" replaces a preposition, "a + verb/noun" referring back to what was already said)
you - singular (familiar)ti............ t' + vowel
you - plural (familiar)vi.............. v' + vowel
You - singular (Formal- male or female)La (capitalized, even in the middle of a sentence)
You - plural (Formal, referring to a group of males, mixed group of males and females)Li (capitalized, even in the middle of a sentence)
You - plural (Fromal, referring to a group of females)Le (capitalized, even in the middle of a sentence)
them - (familiar, referring to males, mixed group of males and females)li
them - (familiar, referring to females)le
of it, of him, of her, of them, some of it, some of them, any, a few, etc...ne..............(refers back to a noun modified by di (of) or di + definite article (of the) and is invariable .............. for "di" constructions, see [Preposizioni semplici e articolati]
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other constructions:

Question Answer
there, hereci, vi ....(unstressed adverbs --act the same as the conjunctive pronouns, referring back to a place already mentioned)
here is, here areecco with pronouns attached to end ... adverbsee chart above
"one"
(as the indefinite or generic subject)
si + 3rd person singular of the verb (But: past participles and adjectives will be plural)
"we" "people" "they" or "everybody"
(as the indefinite or generic subject)
si + 3rd person plural of the active verb
"one" + reflexive verb "ourselves"
(as the indefinite or generic subject)
ci si + 3rd person singular + reflexive verb, the first "si" changes to "ci," > "ci si" "one does something oneself" referring to a singular "one"
"it" when discussing the character of the weatherconstruct using the verb "fare," without any pronoun, as "it" is understood to mean the weather
"to have someone do something"a pronoun is with "fare" + infinitive (pronoun location follows same rules as a pronoun with an infinitive)
"to have someone do something on behalf of the subject" "reflexive fare" + infinitive (pronoun location follows same rules as a pronoun with an infinitive)
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Dative, Indirect Object Pronouns:

NB: no agreement necessary
EnglishItalian
to me, for memi.............. m' + vowel
to you, for you, (informal, or familiar)ti............ t' + vowel
to him, for him; to it, for itgli
to her, for her; to it, for itle
to You, for You (Formal)Le
to us, for usci................. c' + "i" or "e"
to you, for us (all-plural-more than one person)vi............. v' + vowel
to them, for them (informal, referring to males & females)loro.......(always follow the verb)
to them, for them (Formal, referring to males & females )Loro.......(always follow the verb)
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Reflexive Pronouns

PronounReflexive Pronoun
io- myselfmi............ m' + vowel
tu- yourself (familiar)ti.............. t' + vowel
lui- himselfsi............. s' + vowel
lei - herselfsi............. s' + vowel
Lei- itself, Yourself (polite)si............. s' + vowel
noi - ourselves, "each other," "one another"ci............. c' + "i" or "e"
voi - yourselves, "each other," "one another" (familiar)vi.............. v' + vowel
Loro - Themselves, "Each other," "One another" (Polite)si............. s' + vowel
add a passive voice to an active form of the verb, NB: this construction is not replacing a subject with a pronoun, it is tacking on a pronoun (before the verb) to make the action a passive action by the subject.si + 3rd person sing or plural of the verb, depending on the subject, if singular or plural, follow pattern of reflexive pronouns
passive voice without use of pronounessere + past participle (agree in gender and number with the subject to which it refers)
impersonal "si" + reflexive verbsee chart above
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