Progressive Presidents Doings

kaitian's version from 2016-05-09 00:45


Question Answer
League of Nations?Woodrow Wilson: Create International body whose purpose was to maintain world peace and sort international disputes. It did not get passed in Congress and the US did not join it.
Moral Diplomacy?Woodrow Wilson: Hoped to influence and control other countries through economic pressures. Refused to support non-democratic countries to hurt them economically and force them in submission. "The Force of America is the force of Moral Principle.
New Freedom?Woodrow Wilson: Domestic Program that wanted less government but Wilson added new controls like the Federal Reserve System and the Clayton Antitrust Act. Attacked the Triple Wall of Privilege: the tariff, banks, and trusts.
Panama Canal Crisis?Theodore Roosevelt: His goal to connect the two oceans. French began digging across the Isthmus of Panama which was part of Columbia at the time. French held the rights to the project so he bought the rights and negotiated with Columbia for the control of land. He offered $10 million for a fifty-mile strip across the isthmus which Columbia refused. With the French Company's help the staged and support a revolution in Panama against Columbia. Panamanians gladly accepted the money and gave US the control of the 10 mile wide canal zone. Columbians shocked but unable to do anything, unequipped and the US Navy supported the US.
Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy?William Taft: Ballinger was hired by Taft acted improperly by opening Alaskan coal fields to private mining interests. Pinchot was a longtime friend of Roosevelt and Chief Forester. Pinchot was outraged and asked Taft to do something. He ended up firing Pinchot and it revealed deep fault lines in the Republican Party allowing the Democratic Party to rise up.
Pure Food and Drug Act?Theodore Roosevelt: A US Federal Law that provides federal inspection of meat products and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated food products and poisonous patent medicines. Inspired Roosevelt after reading "The Jungle" by Upton Sinclair.
Square Deal?Theodore Roosevelt: Domestic Program forced upon three basic ideas of conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. It aimed to help the middle class citizens and involved attacking monopolies and bad trusts while at the same time protecting business from the extreme demands of organized labor.
Trust Buster?Theodore Roosevelt: Successfully invoked the Sherman Antitrust Act against monopolies and continued to restrict business throughout his presidency.
16th Amendment: Income Tax?William Taft: Desire of Americans to pass an income tax on the rich was strong in 1909 when Taft proposed a 2% of big businesses known as corporations. It deleted the privilege of doing business as a corporation whose stockholders enjoyed the privilege of limited liability and not a tax on incomes.
19th Amendment?Woodrow Wilson: Amendment was the culmination of the women's suffrage movement, which fought at both state and national levels to achieve the vote. The President passed this in support of the fact that no one can be denied to vote based on gender.
Big Stick Diplomacy?Theodore Roosevelt: Foreign Policy. Believed that if the US made a show of force to the rest of the world, other nations might be hesitant to challenge the American Military. As a corollary to this, he also understood that the threat of force rather th-an force itself was often sufficient to deter military conflict. He summarized this belief with an old African Proverb, "Speak softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far."
Clayton Anti-trust?Woodrow Wilson: Wilson did not distinguish between "good" and "bad" trusts. Any trust by virtue of its large size was bad in his eyes. This Act of 1914 clarified the Sherman Act by specifically by naming certain business tactics illegal. This same Act also exempted labor unions from anti-trust suits, and declared strikes, boycotts, and peaceful picketing perfectly legal.
Coal Strike of 1902?Theodore Roosevelt: Coal Miners walked off the coal fields demanding more wage increases, 8 hour work day, and recognition of their union. The coal operators refused to meet their demands so the strike continued for over 5 months. As it continued, winter months were approaching and citizens were becoming concerned about a possible coal shortage. This was the first case of a President intervening in a labor dispute. The two sides were asked to compromise, the two sides couldn't so Roosevelt threatened to send military forces to take over and operate the coal mines. If this happens, the coal operators would lose money as well as the coal miners. Both sides decided to reach a compromise.
Conservation Movement?Theodore Roosevelt: Designated 150 National Forests, Bird Reservations, 5 National Parks, 18 National Monuments, all together he provided protection for almost 230 million acres.
Dollar Diplomacy?William Taft: Term used to describe the effort of the US to further its aims in Latin America and East Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries. The goal of diplomacy should be to create stability abroad, and through stability promote American commercial interests.
Elkins Act?Theodore Roosevelt: Stated that railroads were not allowed to give rebates to favored companies any longer. These rebates had treated small Midwestern farmers unfairly by not allowing them equal access to the services of the railroad. The railroad industry had to be regulated and this Act was the first step.
17th Amendment: Direct Election of` Senators?William Taft: Allowed for senators to be elected by the people for the first time. Previously the senators were elected by the state legislatures.