Progress 2 (Page 17 - 25)

mbch4kz2's version from 2016-05-07 15:36


Question Answer
What are the 2 types of Burkitt's lymphoma?Burkitt's lymphoma is a high-grade B-cell neoplasm. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is strongly indicated in the development of the African form 1. Endemic (african)- involves the maxilla oe mandible 2. Sporadic- abdominal (eg. oleo-caecal) tumours are the most common form; more common in patients with HIV
What microscopic finding would you find with Burkitt's lymphoma?'Starry sky' lymphocyte sheets interspersed with macrophages containing dead apoptotic tumour cells
What complication of chemotherapy to treat Burkitts lymphoma may occur?Tumour lysis syndrome
What is the medication used to prevent tumour lysis syndrome?Rasburicase- A recombinant version of irate oxidase (an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of uric acid to allantoin)
Name 4 complications of tumour lysis syndrome?Hyperkalaemia, hyperphosphataemia, hypocalcaemia, hyperuricaemia, acute renal failure
What are the stages of COPD management?1. Bronchodilator- SABA or SAMA (ipratropium bromide) 2. Determined by FEV1- >50% LABA (salmeterol) or LAMA (tiotropium bromide) FEV1 <50% - LABA + seretide
What is the general management of COPD?Smoking cessation advice, annual influenza vaccination, one-off peneumococcal vaccination
When would oral theophylline be prescribed?Only after trials of short and long acting bronchodilators or people who can't use inhaled therapy (dose should be decreased if macrolide of fluoroquinolone antibiotics are co-prescribed)
What would be prescribed if a patients has a productive cough?Mucolytic- carbacystine
Name 4 features of for pulmonalePeripheral oedema, increased JVP, systolic parasternal heave, loud P2 (2nd heart sound)
What are the most common clinical signs of PE1. Tachypnea (RR >16min)- 96% 2. Crackles (58%) 3. Tachycardia (HR >100- 44%) 4. Fever (43%)
What scoring system is used for PEWell's scorino system
What is the best diagnostic test for PEComputer tomography pulmonary angiongram (CTPA)- faster, easier to perform out of hours, decreased need for further imaging, possibility of providing alternative diagnosis if PE is excluded
Name 4 diagnostic tests used for PE1. CTPA 2. V/Q scan 3. D-dimer 4. ECG 5. Pulmonary angiography
What ECG changes would you see in PE?S1Q3T3 Large S1 (lead I) Large Q (Lead III) Interverted T (Lead IIII) Right bundle-branch block Sinus tachycardia
Name 5 signs you would see in aortic stenosisNarrow pulse pressure, slow risen pulse, delayed ejection systolic murmur, soft/absent S2, S4, thrill, duration of murmur, LV hypertrophy or failure
Name 3 causes of aortic stenosis1. Degenerative calcification 2. Bicuspid aortic valve 3. William's syndrome (supravalvular aortic stenosis) 4. Ppost-reumatic disease 5. Supravalvular (HOCM)
What is the management on critical aortic stenosis?Balloon vavluloplasty
What is the management of symptomatic and asymptomatic aortic stenosisAsymptomatic- observe Symptomatic- Valve replacement

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