Progress 15 NMe (-245)

mbch4kz2's version from 2016-05-12 17:44


Question Answer
What are the two types of aortic dissection?Type A (ascending aorta- 2/3) Type B (descending aorta- distal to left subclavian- 1/3)
What is the management of Type A aortic dissection?Surgical
What is the management of Type B aortic dissection?Conservative
What is coarctation of the aorta?Congenital narrowing of the descending aorta
What are the features of coarctation of the aorta?Heart failure in infancy, hypertension, radio-femoral delay, mud systolic murmur (maximal over back), apical click from the aortic valve,notching of the inferior border of the ribs (due to collateral vessels- not seen in young children)
What is the mechanism of action of digoxin?Decreased conduction through the AV node. The ventricular rate in AF and flutter is slowed. Increased force of cardiac muscle contraction due to inhibition of the Na/K ATPase. Stimulates the vagus nerve.
What is the treatment of digoxin toxicity?1. Digibind 2. Correct arrhythmias 3. Monitor K (hyperkalaemia may worsen toxicity)
What is tuberculosis?An infection caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis that most commonly affects the lungs
Describe primary TBA non-immune host exposed to M.TB may develop primary infection of the lung. A small lung lesion known as a Ghon focus develops/ Ghon focus composed of tubercle-laden macrophages. In immunocompotent people the initial lesion usually heals by fibrosis.
Describe secondary TBIf a host becomes immunocompormised the initial infection becomes reactivated- generally occurs at the apex of the lung; may spread locally or to more distant sites
Where does the inflammation of UC begin and end at in the bowel?The rectum and never goes beyond the ileocaecal valve (continuous inflammation)
What are the symptoms someone with UC may complain of?Bloody diarrhoea, urgency, tenesmus, abdominal pain (particularly in the lower left quadrant), extra-intestinal features
What are the intestinal features common to both Crohn's and UC?Arthritis (most common), erythema nodosum, episcleritis (inflammation of the eye), oesteoporosis
How might someone with a perforated duodenal ulcer present?Sitting up, staying still
What is steattorhea?Pale and fatty stools
Name 5 causes of bowel obstructionCancers, intussusception (inversion of a part of the bowel), adhesions, extrinsic compression, hernias, Crohn's, trichobezoar (hair ball), phytobezoar (undigested food matter), volvulus (twisting of the stomach and intestine)
What are the symptoms of bowel obstruction?Colicky pain, vomiting(small bowel obstruction can produce up to 2/3 litres of fluid a day), contraption, abdominal distension (small bowel obstruction accounts for 80% of all intestinal obstruction)

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