Progress 14 (Page 185-201)

mbch4kz2's version from 2016-05-11 19:48


Question Answer
What are the 5 conditions that do not require antibiotic prescribing?1. Acute otitis media 2. Acute sore throat 3. Acute pharyngitis 4. Acute tonsillitis 5. Common cold- rhinositis or bronchitis
What conditions should require immediate antibiotic prescribing in children?Children <2 with bilateral otitis media and children with ottorhoea who have acute otitis media
What are the features of a tricyclic acid overdose?Dry mouth, dilated pupils, agitation, sinus tachycardia, blurred vision. If severe then arrhythmias, seizures, metabolic acidosis and coma. ECG changes- sinus tachycardia, widened QRS, prolonged QT
What is the management of tricyclic acid overdose?IV bicarbonate may decrease risk of seizures, antiarrhythmics, IV lipid emulsion is increasingly use to bind free drug and reduce toxicity, dialysis is effective in removing tricyclics
What is hereditary spherocytosis?The most common hereditary haemolytic anaemia in Northern Europeans. Autosomal dominant defect of RBC cytoskeleton where the normal biconcave shape is replaced by a spherical one. Sphere shape is destroyed by spleen
How does hereditary spherocytosis present?Failure to thrive, jaundice, splenomegaly, aplastic crisis precipitated by parovirus infection, degree of haemolysis is variable
How is hereditary spherocytosis treated?Folate replacement, splenectomy
How do nitrates work on blood vessels?Release nitric oxide in smooth muscle of vessel wall. Increase cGMP which leads to a fall in intracellular Ca
What are the side-effects of nitrates?Hypotension, tachycardia, headaches and flushing
What are the 3 types of syncope?Reflex syncope, orthostatic and cardiac
Describe reflex syncopeNeurally mediated- most common. Vasovagal (emotion, pain or stress), situational (cough, micturition, GI), carotid sinus syncope
Describe orthostatic syncopePrimary autonomic failure (parkinson's, Lewy body dementia), 2ry autonomic failure (diabetic neuropathy, amyloidosis), drug induced (diuretics, alcohol, vasodilators), volume depletion (haemorrhage, diarrhoea)
Cardiac syncopeArrhythmias, structural (valvular, MI, HOCM), PE
What are the respiratory complications of rheumatoid arthritis?Pulmonary fibrosis, broncholitis obliterance, pleurisy, pleural effusion, pulmonary nodules, methotrexate pneumonitis
What are the ocular complications of rheumatoid arthritis?Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (most common), spiscleritis, scleritis, corneal ulceration, keratitis
Name non-respiratory or ocular complications of rheumatoid arthritisOsteoporosis, IHD, increased risk of infections, deppression
What is the most common Leukaemia in the Western world?B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL)- monoclonal proliferation of well-differentiated lymphocytes
What are the symptoms of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia?Often none, generalised lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, anorexia (weight loss), bleeding, infections
What would be seen on a blood film in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia?Smudge cells (smear cells)
What is the management of bronchiectasis?1. Physical training (eg. inspiratory muscle training) 2. Postural drainage 3. Antibiotics (for exacerbation) 4. Bronchodilators (selected cases) 5. Immunisations 6. Surgery (localised disease)
What would be seen in asbestos exposure to the lung?Pleural plaques (occur latent period of 20-40 years), pleural thickening (similar pattern to emypema or haemothorax), lower lobe fibrosis
What is mesothelioma?Malignant disease of the pleura (even limited exposure an cause disease- asbestos)
What are the symptoms of mesothelioma?Progressive SOB, chest pain and pleural effusion

Recent badges