Progress 13 (Page 171-182)

mbch4kz2's version from 2016-05-11 18:49


Question Answer
What murmur is heard in aortic stenosis?Ejection systolic
What causes an ejection systolic murmur?Aortic stenosis, pulmonary stenosis, HOCM, ASD, Fallot's
What murmur would you hear a pan systolic murmur?Mitral and tricuspid regurgitation (high-pitched blowing)
What murmur would you hear in VSD?Pansytolic
What murmur would you hear in mitral valve prolapse or coarctation of the aorta?Late systolic
What conditions cause late systolic murmurs?Mitral valve prolapse, coarctatino of the aorta
What condition causes an early diastolic murmur?Mitral stenosis (rumbling)
What condition causes a continuous 'machine-like' murmur?Patent ductus arteriosis
What is cardiac tamponade?Fluid or blood collects in the pericardium- this prevents the ventricles from expanding fully
What are the causes of cardiac tamponade?Dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysm, end-stage lung cancer, acute MI, surgery pericarditis, malignancy
What are the features of cardiac tamponade?Dyspnoea, increased JVP, tachycardia, hypotension, muffled heart sounds, pulses paradoxus, Kussmaul's sign (increased JVP on inspiration)
How does pneumocystis jiroveci usually present?Desaturation on exertion, CXR often appears normal, pneumothorax is common complication, almost exclusively happens in the immunosuppressed- HIV (most common opportunistic infection in AIDs)
What is the treatment for pneumocystitis jiroveci?1. Co-trimoxazole 2. IV pentamidine in severe 3. Steroids if hypoxic (if pO2 <9.3)
What is a myeloma?Cancer of plasma cells- WBCs that produce antibodies. Neoplams of bone marrow cells (occurs in 60-70 years old)
What are the clinical features of myeloma?Bone disease (pain, osteoporosis, fractures, vertebral-osteolytic lesions), lethargy, infection, hypercalcaemia, renal failure, amyloidosis
How do you diagnose myeloma?Monoclonal proteins (IgA or IgG) in the serum and urine, increased plasma cells in the bone marrow, bone lesions on the skeletal survery
What specific feature of myeloma is caused by meloma cells?Hypercalcaemia- increased osteoclast resorption caused by local cytokines (eg. IL-1, tumour necrosis factor) released by myeloma cells. May also get impaired renal function, increased tubular Ca reabsorption and elevated PTH-IP levels
Name 5 complications of MI1. Caridiac arrest 2. Cardiogenic shock 3. Chronic heart faulure 4. Tachyarrhythmias 5. Bradyarrhythmias 6. Pericarditis 7. LV aneurysm 8.LV free wall rupture 9. VSD 10. Acute mitral regurgitation

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