Progress 1 (pages 1- 16)

mbch4kz2's version from 2016-05-07 15:03


Question Answer
What are the 4 histological classifications of hodkin's lymphoma?1. Nodular sclerosing 2. Mixed cellularity 3. Lymphocyte predominant 4. Lymphocyte depleted
What cell characterises hod kin's lymphomaReed-sternberg cell
What defines nodular sclerosing hodkins?Most common (70%), good prognosis, more common in women and associated with lacunar cells
What defines mixed cellularity hod kin's?20%, good prognosis, associated with large number of Reed-sternberg cells
What symptoms imply a poor prognosis in hod kin's lymphoma?Weight loss ?10% in 6 months, fever >38C, night sweats, >45 years, stage IV disease, Hb <10.5g/dl
Name 5 causes of white shadowing in the lung on X-rayConsolidation, pleural effusion, collapse, pneumonectomy, specific lesions (tumours), fluid (pulmonary oedema)
On X-ray, what would cause the trachea to be pulled towards an opacityPneumonectomy, complete lung collapse (eg. endobronchial intubation) and pulmonary hypoplasia)
What would cause the trachea to be pulled away from an opacity on X-ray?Pleural effusion, diaphragrmatic hernia, large thoracic mass
What are the 3 stages of hypertension- clinicalStage 1 140/90 Stage 2 160/100 Stage 3 >180 or >110
What are the 3 stage of hypertension- ambulatoryStage 1 135/85 Stage 2 150/95 Stage 3 >180 or >110
What can cause unequal BP readings from the armsSupravalvular aortic stenosis
What is the management of heart failure? (3 stages)1. ACE-inhibitor + B-blocker 2. Spironolactone +ARB 3. Cardioresyncronization + Digoxin
What are the benefits of digoxin in heart failureNo decrease in mortality but helps symptoms due to ionotropic effect - stingily indicated if concomitant AF
What are the 5 steps of asthma management?Step 1- SABA as req. Step 2 - SABA + inh. steroid Step 3 - SABA + steroid + LABA Step 4 - SABA + Steroid + LABA + Leukotrience antagonist 5. Daily steroid tablet in lowest dose that provides adequate control
Name 2 examples of leukotriene receptor antagonistsMontelukast and zafirlukast
What is the difference between fluticasone and beclomethasone?Fluticasone is more lipophilic and has longer duration of action

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