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Proffitt1 -

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robbypowell's version from 2018-11-09 12:05

chapter 1

Question Answer
Who is considered the father of orthodontics?Edward Angle
What was the goal of Edward Angle's orthodontic treatment... the cusp of what tooth occluding with what other tooth?MB cusp of U6 in MB groove of L6
t/f: Edward Angle's approach was a non-extraction approachtrue
_____ ______ (U.S.) and _____ _____ (Australia) ((both of whom had studied with Angle), reintroduced extractions into orthodontics in the 1940s and 1950sCharles Tweed & Raymond Begg
Cephalometric Radiography became popular (widely used) after what event?WWII
the Irregularity Index refers to a measure of ______ alignmentIncisor
during the NHANES III study (1989-1994) a criteria for measurement in children was a midline diastema of greater than _____ mm2 mm ((this is because anything larger than 2 mm does not tend to resolve itself in later dentition
A finding of NHANES III was that as subjects age... Overjet _____ (increases/decreases) and crowding _____ (increases/decreases)OJ decreases; Crowding increases
A finding of NHANES III was that ___ (fraction) of the subjects have at least moderate crowding, Mandible almost always worse than maxilla1/3
How did NHANES III measure Angle Classification of subjects?Overjet measured (indirect measure)
According to NHANES III, approximately ____ (fraction) of subjects have ideal overjet; in the terms of the rest (Class II/Class III) was more prevalent than (Class II/Class III)1/3; Class II > Class III
According to NHANES III aproximately ____ (fraction) of subjects have ideal overbite; in terms of the rest (Deep Bite/Open Bite) was more prevalent than (Deep Bite/Open Bite)1/2; Deep Bite > Open Bite
T/F: There has been a steady reduction in the size of both anterior and posterior teeth over at least the last 100,000 years.True
T/F: The number of teeth in the dentition of higher primates has been reduced from the usual mammalian pattern.True
T/F: There has been a steady increase in the size of both anterior and posterior teeth over at least the last 100,000 years.False (steady reduction)
T/F: The number of teeth in the dentition of higher primates has been increased from the usual mammalian pattern.False (decreased)
According to study by Robert Corruccini, Increased _____ and posterior ______ in Urbanized youths vs. Punjabi (rural) youthsCrowding; Post Crossbites
T/F: According to a study by Meyer-Marcotty, P, appearance of teeth affects a teachers’ expectations and therefore in student progress in school, employability, and relationships.True
T/F: According to a study by Meyer-Marcotty, P, appearance of teeth has no effect on teachers' view on students or success in later lifeFalse
T/F: The number of people with moderate malocclusions far exceeds the number of people w/ TMD.True (therefore, Unlikely that malocclusion alone is enough to cause muscular hyperactivity.)
Long-term studies: do they show an indication that orthodontic treatment increased or decreased the chance of later periodontal problems?. (Jonsson, T)No Indication
____ _____ ____ are considered the Gold standard for evaluating clinical proceduresRandomized Clinical Trials (RCT's)
memorize

GSO Analysis Norms

Question Answer
SNA82 (deg) (Sella - Nasion - A Point)
SNB80 (deg) (Sella - Nasion - B Point)
ANB2 (deg) (A point - Nasion - B point)
SN-MP32 (deg) (SellaNasion - Mandibular Plane)
FMA25 (deg) (Frankfort Horizontal - Mandibular Plane)
S-N (mm)66 (Sella - Nasion)
FH-SN7 (deg) (Frankfort Horizontal - SellaNasion)
Y Axis (SGn-SN)66 (deg)
PP-MP23 (deg) (Palatal Plane - Mandibular Plane)
Wits (mm)-1 (mm) (Witts Analysis)
U1-NA (deg/mm)22/4 (mm)
U1-SN102 (deg) (U incisor - Sella - Nasion)
U1-PP110 (deg) (U incisor - palatal plane)
L1-NB (deg/mm)25/4 (deg/mm) (L incisor - nasion - B point)...( mm farthest perperndicular to NB)
L1-MP90 (deg)
L1-FH65 (deg)
U1-L1130 (deg)
U Lip - E Plane-4 (mm)
L Lip - E Plane-2 (mm)
memorize

Chapter II

Question Answer
____ usually refers to an increase in size or numberGrowth
Development almost always refers to an increase in complexity, specialization, and loss of potentialDifferentiation
_____, as a type of information, is regarded as being the best/pinnacleMeta-Analysis (or review article)
T/F: long term studies have found there no indication that orthodontic treatment increased or decreased the chance of later periodontal problems.True (Jonsson, T)
T/F: long term studies have confirmed that orthodontic treatment increased or decreased the chance of later periodontal problems.False (Jonsson, T) (long term studies found NO indication that ortho tx increased perio problems)
T/F: The evidence that ortho affects later dental outcomes is unclear.True
_____ is largely an anatomic phenomenon, whereas ________ is also physiological and behavioralGrowth, Development
Pattern reflects proportionality... and has to do with changing proportionality over time... this is more related to (growth/development)Growth
term: axis of increased growth extending from cranial base towards feetCephalocaudal gradient of growth
at 2 months (fetal) the ratio of cranium to total body size is ____ while as an adult the ratio is ____50%, 12%
t/f: all tissue systems of body grow at the same rate over the course of maturationFalse
what is the first growth curve to reach max growth velocityNeural
what is the first growth curve to reach 100% of adult sizeLymphoid (although it is not its complete growth as it gets larger than adult size and then diminishes)
which more closely follows the neural growth curve (max/man)Max
which more closely follows the general growth curve (max/man)Man
when does menarche occur relative to peak growth velocity? (before, during, after)After (by a year or two?) (growth IS still occurring... just not at the fastest rate)
____ are studies done on measurments of skulls found amoung human skeletal remainsCraniometry
Measuring skeletal dimensons on LIVING individuals using soft tissue measurementsAnthropometry
Most growth studies are ____-____, since it’s easier to collect data, however, variability within the sample can conceal details of the growth pattern, particularly when there is no correction for timing variationCross-sectional
Radioactive tracers: such as ________ can be used to detect areas of rapid bone growth in humans (e.g. condylar hypertrophy).Technetium
______ tracers such as Technetium can be used to detect areas of rapid bone growth in humans (e.g. condylar hypertrophy).Radioactive
Radioactive tracers such as Technetium can be used to detect condylar ______condylar HYPERTROPHY (areas of rapid bone growth)
homeobox Msx genes are expressed differently in the mandible such that Msx1 --> _____ bone and Msx2 --> ____ bonebasal, alveolar
decreased hedgehog pathway activity causes what craniofacial effect?Holoprosencephaly (failure of the nose to develop) and Hypo-telorism
Excessive hedgehod pathway activity causes what craniofacial effects?(Truncating primary cilia on cranial neural crest cells) causes hypertelorism and frontonasal dysplasia
Chromosomal Loci have been found with Class ____ malocclusionClass 3 (there has been a genetic component found... may or may not be the cause)
___'s (fraction) of genome play a role in craniofacial development2/3's (of 25,000)
_____ is an increase in cell sizehypertophy
______ is an increase in cell #Hyperplasia
what type of bone growth is associated with condylar growth of the mandibleEndochondral (cartilage --> bone)
t/f: cartilage of the condyle behaves like an epiphyseal plateFalse
t/f: cartilage of condyle does not behave like an epiphyseal plateTrue
______ ossification is secreted directly within connective tissue w/o formation of cartilageintramembraneous (e.g. cranial vault, maxilla, mandible except for condyle)
a study that measures different subjects at different ages but does not track their individual growth at different time points is called what?Cross-Sectional
a study that measures individuals at different time points to capture their individual growth is calledlongitudinal
The body of the mandible forms by condensation of mesenchyme just LATERAL to ______'s cartilage (1st pharyngeal arch) by _______ bone formation Meckel's cartilage; intramembranous
Histologically, _____ look like a 2-sided epiphyseal platesynchondroses
What are the Three cranial base synchondroses?spheno-occipital, intersphenoid, & spheno-ethmoidal
The maxilla develops postnatally entirely by ____ ossificationintramembranous
The maxilla also grows by surface remodeling.... where is there Apposition?tuberosity (allows room for posterior eruption), oral side of the palate, & ANS
The maxilla also grows by surface remodeling.... where is there Resorption?most anterior surfaces, nasal side of palate
Vital staining experiments have shown that the principal sites of mandibular growth are the ___ and ____ processes as well as the _____ surface of the ramuscondylar & coronoid processes; POSTERIOR surface of ramus
T/F: Lip separation is maximal during childhood and decreases during adolescenceTrue
T/F: Lip thickness reaches its maximum during adolescence, then decreasesTrue
Growth of the nasal bone is complete at ~ age ___.10yo
T/F: Condylar cartilage showed significantly less growth in culture than the other cartilagesTRUE***
in about ___% of subcondylar fractures in children, the condyle and cartilage resorb and the condyle regenerates.80%
Growth of the Cranial vault occurs almost entirely in response to growth of the _____brain
memorize

Growth tables from last slide of ch 2

Question Answer
What, if any, are the growth centers of the cranial vault?none
What, if any, are the growth centers of the cranial base?synchondroses
What, if any, are the growth centers of the maxilla?none
What, if any, are the growth centers of the mandible?none
What type or types of ossification occurs for cranial vault?Intramembraneous (mesenchymal)
What type or types of ossification occurs for Cranial base?Endochondral & Intramembraneous (lateral only)
What type or types of ossification occurs for maxilla?Intramembraneous (mesenchymal)
What type or types of ossification occurs for mandible?Intramembraneous & Endochondral (condyle & symphysis only)
memorize