Pro And Anti Social Behaviour
Social Psychological Theories of Aggression
Bandura (1962) Social learning theory. We learn by observing others, direct/vicarious experience. Observation->Mental Representation of Outcome->Production of behaviour.
Bandura's Bobo Doll Study (1963) Supports SLT, children learned through vicarious learning how to react to the doll.
Phillips (1986) Supports SLT. Homocide rate higher in USA following a boxing match (seeing violence celebrated = vicarious reinforcement)
Zimbardo (1969) Deindividuation theory. Anonymity/altered consciousness causes us to lose our sense of individuality and stop conforming to social norms.
Zimardo's Prison Experiment (1973) Found that the guard ppts conformed to perceived roles and thoroughly harrassed prisoners.
Mann (1981) Baiting Crowd - baiting a potential suicide to jump was increased when under more anonymous conditions (darkness, big crowd, distance from victim)
Prentice-Dunn and Rogers (1982) It is reduced private self-awareness that causes deindividuation, not anonymity.
Postmes and Spears (1998) Challenges Deindividuation.. Meta-analysis, found no evidence that deindividuation leads to aggressive behaviour.
Effects of Environmental Stressors on Aggressive Behaviour
Halpern (1995) Found evidence of a U relationship between heat and aggression, as at a certain point aggression drops as the individual just wants to escape from the heat.
Baron + Bell (1976) Supports Halpern. Rise in heat = rise in 'negative effect' wich is a predisposition to aggression.
Kerrick+Macfarlane (1986) Higher temperature = higher chance of beeping the horn at a stalled car.
Anderson (1987) Positive correlation between heat and violent crime.
Moghaddam (1998) Temperature: Challenges effect of temperature. Routine Activity Theory suggests aggression rates are higher in summer not because of temperature but because people are out more.
Bell (1990) Uncontrollable noise elicits a negative response, especially if it is unpredictable.
Donnerstein + Wilson (1976) Ppts who had been angered by criticism for their essay gave stronger electric shocks when noise increased. Shows that noise must be combined with more negative stimilus before aggression occurs.
Evans (1998) Noise: Children who lived under a flight path showed significant increase in blood pressure+stress hormones.
Cohen (1978) The effects of crowding depend on how the individual perceives it.
Stoloks (1976) Crowding: Stimulus overload is when senses are bombarded, too much to deal with. Interaction of environmental stressors produces most aggression.
Calhoun (1962) Crowding: Rats placed in small area soon started killing, sexually assaulting, eating eachother.
Macintyre + Homel (1997) Level of crowding observed in nightclubs correlated with number of aggressive incidents.
Explanations of Altruism/Bystander Behaviour
Batson (1991) Empathy-Altriusm Hypothesis - altruism is a consequence of feeling empathy with someone in need (perspective taking, empathetic concern). Acting to resolve personal distress is egoistic not altruistic.
Batson (1981) Elaine Electric Shock Study - Only people in easy escape/high empathy felt real empathy for Elaine. All others acted for egoistic reasons.
Cialdiani (1997) Challenges Elaine shock study - individuals help not because of empathetic concern but becayse they identify something of themselves within the individual (oneness)
Cialdini (1987) Altruism: Negative State Relief Model. Poeople help to avoid negative state, but only when there is no other way to relieve it. (When payment involved, people helped less in Elaine replication)
Latane + Darley (1970) Cognitive Decision model - bystanders go through a process of decision making when choosing whether to help in an emergency.
Latane + Darley (1968) Bystander behaviour: Smoke filled room study - when others did not act, neither did ppt. Supports effect of pluralistic ignorance.
Latane + Darley (1968) Bystander behaviour: Epilepsy study. When there were more other participants, individuals less likely to help. Supports effect of diffusion of responsibilty
Darley + Batson (1973) Good samaritan study - people less likely to help when they believed they were late. Supports effect of preoccupation.
Culutural differences in pro-social behaviour
Miller (1994) Found that Hindu Indians (collectivists) feel an obligation to help, whereas American (individualists) base decision on the relationship with the victim + magnitude of nood.
Nadler (1986) Found that those raised communally were more likely to help and seek help.
Feldman (1967) Foreigners who asked for a favour in Greece more likely to receive than Greeks themselves. Reverse found in Paris and Boston.
Milgram (1970) Information overload theory: people in urban areas may become desensitised to emergency situations.
Eagly+Crowly (1986) 62% of studies found that males more helpful than females.
Media influences on prosocial behaviour
Bandura (1965) Children learn by observing behaviour from role models.
Greenberg (1980) Pro-social and anti-social content appear alongside eachother, anti-social overshadows pro-social.
Mares (1996) Children may have more difficulty understanding abstract prosocial messages, so will be less affected by them.
Johnston + Ettema (1982) large scale study involving 12-13 year olds. There was found to be a reduction in stereotypical attitudes and gender role beliefs in children who watched a pro social TV series for 3 months
Silverman + Sprafkin (1980) - Challenges media influences. 'Lost your marbles' game. No difference in levels of cooperation from children who watched clips of cooperation compared to neutral clips.
Holloway (1977) Good news study - those who heard a pro social news story were more likely to be cooperative in a bargaining task.
Hearold (1986) Meta-analysis - pro social themes had greater effect on prosocial behaviour than anti-social behaviour did on anti-social behaviour.
Comstock (1989) Argued that most studies on media influences on pro social behaviour were based on programmes designed to be pro social, whereas antisocial ones arent designed to be antisocial.
Media influences on anti-social behaviour
Josephson (1987) Hockey game study, found that boys who had watched a violent film were more aggressive in the following hockey match.
Bandura (1986) Television can shape behaviour through imitation + vicarious reinforcement.
Cumberbatch (2001) Desensitization only effects reaction to subsequent media violence, not real life violence.
Paik + Comstock (1994) Meta analysis. Overall positive correlation between exposure to violent media and violent behaviour.
Charlton (2000) St Helena Study. Two years after introduction of TV, no increase in anti-social behaviour. Challenges the Notel study.
Belton (1978) Boys who watch most tv were LESS aggressive. Maybe due to Routine Activity Theory.
Cumberbatch; Moral Panic Relationship between media and antisocial behaviour is overhypoed.
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