|What was Spain’s “Requerimiento?”||The Spaniards thought they had a divine mandate to conquer the Indians, and this was a book that the natives were required to read and said that they were required to accept the Spaniard's religion. If they didn't, then they would be conquered.|
|How did the Spanish approach to acquiring dominion differ from the English?||They went directly to stage 3, which was establishing dominion by conquering and making the natives more similar to the world they were used to.|
|When Columbus first observed how gentle and generous the Native people of the Caribbean islands were, what conclusion about that did he write in his diary?||How easy it would be to convert these people and make them work for us.|
|What are the three stages of European/Native American interaction in the order in which they normally occurred (chronological sequence)?||Friendly/Reciprocal, Demographic Shifts and Conflicts, and Establishment of Dominion|
|What did the Europeans get of value from the early stages of intercultural trade compared to the Indians?||They were dependent on the Indians at first for guides and knowledge about the land, as well as for trading resources. The Indians also got goods, but were less dependent on the Europeans.|
|Identify a few of the epidemic diseases that were the most devastating to Native American tribes during the colonial era.||Smallpox, bubonic plague, cholera, measles, tuberculosis, and many others.|
|Differences in dependency on each other’s trade goods at the different stages||First the Europeans were dependent on Native Americans, but then the dependency switched as they progressed from the 2nd to 3rd stages.|
|European land acquisition: buying, stealing, or something else? (Discussion of Coursepack articles 23a and 23b)|
|Economic and Cultural Impact of Early Contact with Europeans; Identify the 6 items in bold print- which item of impact was the most significant?||Epidemic diseases, new technology, loss of homelands, loss of time, warfare to new extremes, and devaluation of culture. Epidemic diseases?|
|Intertribal armies against the colonialists- basically, be aware of the level of armed resistance that actually existed before population dynamics made military resistance unfeasible||Mexican armed forces|
|What were Jefferson's three different attitudes and policies towards Indians (Plans A, B, and C)?||Come and Join us, get out of our way, and resistance in punishable by death.|
|Which plan did Jefferson express when talking directly to Indians?||Come and Join us|
|Which plan resembles our modern credit system to some degree?||B|
|In one word, Jefferson’s “plan C” was the use of _______________||force to remove Indians from their homelands.|
|What was the basic premise behind the “Doctrine of Discovery” and how did it match Dominion Theology and the Great Chain of Being?||Based by Aristotle, claimed that countries had an international legal claim to undiscovered lands to whatever "Christian" nation discovered it first.|
|What was the purpose of the Indian Removal Act of 1830?||To acquire the Indian lands east of the Mississippi for the expanding industrial economy and to expand the production of cotton.|
|What was “Indian Territory?”||What is now the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, and was the homelands of the Osage, Kansa, Pawnee, Omaha, Oto, Kiowa, and Missouri nations.|
|How many tribes were sent there?||67|
|Was there only one "Trail of Tears?”||No|
|Why did the Removal process focus mostly on the tribal nations of the Deep South? What did the rapid expansion of the cotton industry have to do with it?||The deep south was a good place to grow cotton, it was hot and cotton mainly relies on hot and high humidity weather, cotton was a highly priced product.|
|Identify a few impacts of the Removal on the tribes involved. What issues did they have to deal with and what sorts of adjustments did they have to make after they arrived there?|
|Define treaty||A binding legal agreement between two or more sovereign nations|
|Define reservation||A small remnant of a tribal nation’s original homeland, reserved by the U.S. government by treaty for the exclusive use of the tribe, or tribes, named in the treaty, after the U.S. took the rest of their homeland.|
|What were the 3 purposes of U.S./Indian treaties?||To take Indian lands for the expansion of the United States, to keep Indians “out of the way” of U.S. expansion by confining them to reservations, to preserve peace and prevent Indian retaliation, and to avoid the costs of war.|
|What are the two main legal precedents which establish tribal sovereignty?||The sovereignty of Native American tribal nations is affirmed by the U.S. Constitution, Article 1, sections 8 and 10, and by several Supreme Court rulings, as well as by the treaties themselves.|
|Identify the main provisions of Articles 1,2,3, and 5 of the treaties||1- describes the geographic land the US is taking. 2- reserves a little of Indian land for the owners, establishes the boundary of the reservation. 3- preserves some Indian subsistence rights. 5- establishes Native economic dependency on the U.S. and U.S. economic responsibility for the welfare of Indian people|
|Which 2 treaty articles had the most to do with creating economic dependency for Indians on reservations?||Article 1 and 5; discussing the boundaries of the land taken by the US and outlines how to treaties would result in economic dependency|
|What percentage of their original homelands were the Salish and Kootenai tribes left with after the creation of the Flathead Indian Reservation?||5.7%|
|Why did the U.S. senate reject all of the treaties with the Indian tribes of California in 1852?||The mining interests did not want to have any potential gold or silver mines inaccessible due to being on reservations|
|How many treaties were made and broken?||370|
|What did the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 do to Indian Territory?||Took away 2/3 of their land|
|Main impacts of treaties and reservations (Coursepack #33, especially bold print headings and key comments from lecture)||Loss of homeland and resource base, tribes restricted to reservation land, subjected to the authority of agents of the U.S. government, economic dependency on the U.S. government, missionaries had a "captive" audience and were given the authority to start boarding schools, chiefs gradually lost authority and respect among their people, periods of starvation and disease.|
|Motivations for the boarding school and allotment ideas.||christian knowledge|
|In what ways were the people behind these ideas both benevolent and paternalistic?||They were treating the Indians like children, but also they were doing this to "help" the Native Americans.|
|Names of the first Indian boarding school and its founder||Carlisle Boarding School founded by Richard Pratt|
|What was the purpose of the boarding schools?||To train Native American children in the industrial arts, so they could be accepted in U.S. society.|
|How many off-reservation boarding schools were there in the U.S. by 1899?||25|
|What was often the first thing that the schools forbade and punished students for when they first arrived at the schools?||Forbidden to speak native language (?)|
|What were the 8 impacts of boarding schools on Native American people and tribes, described in lecture||Alienated children from their families and tribes, caused loss of language and culture, created low self-esteem and negative self-images in the students (internalized racism), gave the Indian students a distorted view of Euro-Americans (both negative and positive distortions), provided the Native American students with some basic literacy and some marketable industrial skills, created some people who could not fit well into either the Euro-American world or the world they came from, gave some Indians a distrust of and aversion towards Euro-American formal education, disrupted and degraded Native American child-raising traditions and nurturing processes.|
|What sorts of distorted perspectives about “white” people did the Indian students acquire through their boarding school experiences?||Indian students weren't sure whether to view the white people as saviors or as people that were trying to destroy or change them.|
|How did the boarding schools affect Indian cultural continuity, including parenting and nurturing practices?||Boarding schools ruined the cultural continuity that came from parenting and nurturing practices. Because children left so early for boarding schools, the opportunity for bonding with and the teaching of the children was taken away or shortened.|
|Carl Schurz and Henry Dawes began designing the Allotment Act one year after what major event which created an increased anti-Indian sentiment in America?||Custer's Last Stand|
|Why did it take ten years of very difficult compromise to get the law passed?||So much resistance and hostilities towards Indians.|
|Refer to Coursepack #38, 2 parts: part 1, main points of the Allotment Act , and part 2, impacts of the Allotment Act||-indians must end common ownership of tribal land. |
-there would be a 25 year patent on each lot, held in trust.
-each indian head of household was given 4 years to select an allotment or govt would for them.
-all unclaimed lots could be "assigned" to non-indians.
-Any indians who would choose to abandon tribal ties and allegiances could become citizents.
-more loss of land 2/3 were lost.
-further breakdown of tribal unity.
-environmental destruction by mining, logging and ranching outfits.
-increased close contact with white society, domination by whites and influences of white culture.
-increased assimilation to white culture.
-increase economic dependency on white americans.
|Number of acres allotted to individuals; why were lots held “in trust” by the government||160 or 80, depending on if they had a family, and so that Indians couldn't sell, lease, or otherwise dispose of their allotments without govt. permission.|
|Meanings of “surplus land,” "blood quantum"||Land that wasn't allotted could be sold to non-Indians, and blood quantum laws meant that the amount of blood needed to be eligible for federal funding.|
|How much reservation land was lost due to the Allotment Act?||139 million reduced to 48 million acres, so 2/3 were lost.|
|Two reasons for “cowboy culture” among some Native Americans||To provide work, as they were good at living in rugged locations. Living really closely to the land. Fit really well with their culture. Way for men to have a sense of purpose.|
|After oil was discovered in Oklahoma, what % of Indian allotments were "lost"?||66% of Indian allotments were lost|