|Integration||High minority and high majority identification |
(A healthy incorporation of both cultures into one's identity)
|Assimilation||Low minority and high majority identification |
(Giving up one's own culture to identity with the majority)
|Separation||High minority and low majority identification |
(Shunning the dominant culture and identifying only with the minority group)
|Marginalization||Low minority and low majority identification |
(No identification with any culture)
(Positive attitudes for the dominant group)
(Confusion and conflict over contradictory attitudes)
|Stage 3||RESISTANCE & IMMERSION|
(Active rejection of the dominant group)
(Uncertainty about the rigidity of previous attitudes)
|Stage 5||INTEGRATIVE AWARENESS|
(Adoption of a multicultural perspective)
(Race and racial identity have low salience and the person may have internalized racist notions about African Americans)
(An event or series of events leads to greater racial and cultural awareness and an increased interest in developing a Black identity)
(Race and racial identity have high salience and the person move from intense Black involvement [immersion] to strong anti-White attitudes [emersion])
Race continues to have high salience and the person adopts one of three identities:
1. Black Nationalism/Afrocentric Orientation (Pro-Black, non-racist)
2. Bicultural Orientation (Integrates Black identity with White or other salient cultural identity)
3. Multiculturalist Orientation (Integrates a Black identity with two or more other salient cultural identities)
(Lack of racial awareness about self and others)
(Increasing awareness of race and racism leads to confusion and conflict)
(Conflict and confusion is resolved by adopting a racist view of White superiority and minority inferiority; may deny racism)
(Begins to question racist views)
(Confronts own biases; replaces racist myths with accurate information; explores possibility of non-racist White identity)
(Internalizes "whiteness" without racist beliefs and practices; values cross-racial interactions)
|Stage 1||SENSITIZATION/FEELING DIFFERENT|
(Occurs in childhood and involves a sense of "feeling different" from same-gender peers)
|Stage 2||SELF-RECOGNITION/IDENTITY CONFUSION|
(Occurs during adolescence as feelings of differentness become increasingly associated with sexuality, which leads to confusion, disorientation, and internal conflicts)
|Stage 3||IDENTITY ASSUMPTION|
(Usually occurs in early adulthood and involves dealing with social stigma and integrating one's sexuality with a sense of self- for example by immersing oneself in the gay/lesbian subculture)
|Stage 4||COMMITMENT/IDENTITY INTEGRATION|
(Follows the first three stages and is characterized by acceptance of one's sexual orientation as a "way of being")
|Intercultural Nonparanoiac Discloser||(Low Functional Paranoia, Low Cultural Paranoia) |
The client is willing to self-disclose to an African American or Anglo therapist.
|Functional Paranoiac||(High Functional Paranoia, Low Cultural Paranoia) |
The client is unwilling to self-disclose to either an African American or Anglo therapist due primarily to pathology.
Choice of a therapist should be based on competence rather than race or culture (focus is on the most effective approach to alleviating the client's pathology).
|Healthy Cultural Paranoiac||(Low Functional Paranoia, High Cultural Paranoia) |
The client is willing to self-disclose to an African American therapist but reluctant to disclose to an Anglo therapist due to past experiences with racism.
Goals of treatment: (1) Confront the meaning of the client's paranoia by bringing the client's antipathy toward Whites into conscious awareness and to correct the presenting problem. (2) Helping the client develop "Disclosure Flexibility" to recognize when it is appropriate or inappropriate to self-disclose. May involve the therapist's appropriate use of disclosure (increases client's trust of white therapist).
|Confluent Paranoiac||(High Functional Paranoia, High Cultural Paranoia) |
The client is unwilling to self-disclose to either an African American or Anglo therapist due to a combination of pathology and the effects of racism.
The therapist should be from the same racial/ethnic group, and the emphasis of treatment is to alleviate the client's pathology (associated with the portion of paranoia that is functional) and to bring antipathy of Whites into conscious awareness and develop disclosure flexibility (associated with the aspects of paranoia that are culturally-based).
|Levels of Acculturation (Berry) (4)||(1) Integration; (2) Assimilation; (3) Separation; (4) Marginalization|
|Racial/Cultural Identity Development (Atkinson, Morten, & Sue) (5)||(1) Conformity; (2) Dissonance; (3) Resistence & Immersion; (4) Introspection; (5) Integrative Awareness|
|Black Racial (Nigrescence) Identity Development Model (Cross) (4)||(1) Pre-Encounter; (2) Encounter; (3) Immersion-Emersion; (4) Internalization|
|White Racial Identity Development Model (Helms) (6)||(1) Contact; (2) Disintegration; (3) Reintegration; (4) Pseudo-Independence; (5) Immersion-Emersion; (6) Autonomy|
|Gay/Lesbian Identity Development Model (Troiden) (4)||(1) Sensitization/Feeling Different; (2) Self-Recognition/Identity Confusion; (3) Identity Assumption; (4) Commitment/Identity Integration|