Principles Of Animal Food Technology

Updated 2007-01-31 18:33

Principles of Animal Food Technology

Material for Midterm 1

Meat Basics

Questions and TermsAnswers and Definitions
Meat consumption is an indicator of what?Social and economic prestige; as a nation industrializes and the economy goes up, meat consumption increases.
What nutrients in meat are limited in the American diet?Iron, Zinc, B-vitamins and Vitamin A.
Why does raw meat taste salty and bitter?1 lb of meat has 1 gram of salt and 1.5 grams potassium, and the ADP in muscle degrades into inosine and hypoxanthine.
What are inosine and hypoxanthine?Inosine is a nucleoside, and a muscle movement intermediate, while hypoxanthine isa purine.
What can cause meat to taste sour?Lactic acid is produced during post moretm glycolysis, and drops the pH of the meat.
What does "aging" mean?Aging meat is the intentional degredation of meat products through time at a controlled temperature. Aging enhances the flavor of the meat.
What is boar taint and how is it exacerbated or minimized?It is the smell and taste of urine, sweat and manure. Generally, it is intensified when cooked, but it can be prevented through good swine nutrition and management, castration, early harvesting.
How does fat contribute to flavor?Fat is an excellent solvent for flavor and aroma components, which means it can vary greatly in taste.
What are the three types of fat?Intramuscular (AKA marbling), intermuscular (found between individual muscles) and subcutaneous (depot fat, under the skin).
Degree of saturation (lowest to highest)fish, poultry, pork, lamb, beef.
What is warmed over flavor?When cooked meat is reheated, iron inons speed up the oxidation of unsaturated FA's, which leads to a metallic flavor.
3 ways that rancidity occurs?Autoxidation, enzymatic oxidation and photo oxidation.
AutoxidationOxidative rancidity, seen mainly in unsaturated fats; influenced by O2, temperature and light.
Enzymatic oxidationHydrolytic rancidity (of much less significance); lipases break up FA's into free fatty acids which are more prone to oxidation
Photo oxidationCaused by UV light, oxygen changes from a triplet O2 to three single O2's.


Looking at safety measures and facilities.
Question or TermAnswer or Definition
SSOPSanitation Safety Operating Procedures
What in particular does SSOP target?Pest management and control, microbial testing, and pre & post operational sanitation.
HACCPHazard Anaylysis of Critical Control Points.
What is HACCP?Systematic approach to food safety which identifies biological, chemical and physical hazards and develops preventative measures throughout the process to stop these hazards before they begin.
What are the 7 HACCP steps?1. Hazard Analysis. 2. Critical Control Points (where would it happen?) 3. Critical Limits (what is too much/too bad?) 4. Monitoring (how much should we watch?) 5. Corrective Actions (how can we ensure this won't happen again?) 6. Record Keeping (prove that HACCP was followed) 7. Verification (check and recheck)
What is the Meat Inspection Act?Federal law that authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections at his discresion to protect the American diet.
What is the Federal Meat Inspection Act?Mandated the USDA inspection of meat processing plants that conducted business across state lines.
What are the main regulatory departments?USDA and FSIS (Food Safety Inspection Service).
What does the FSIS do?A public health regulatory agency, they regulate commercial supply of meat, poultry and egg products; also develop and implement policies.
What does the USDA do?Develop and execute sound public policy on farming, agriculture and food-related issues.
What does meat inspection entail?A manditory service that offers the assurance that the meat we eat was produced by a healthy animal, processed by cleanly procedures, is truthfully labeled, and free of contamination or disease.
What is meat grading?A voluntary procedure by the Agricultural Marketing Service that grades meat as prime, choice, select, etc.
Ante Mortem inspectionVisual inspection of the live animal before harvesting; occurs as the animal enters the facility; takes into account at motion and at rest; Inspector in Charge (IIC) has the final say. No down animals, and animals must be able to stand and walk.
Post Mortem InspectionInspection of the head, lymph nodes, viscera and overall carcass for signs of disease or systematic infection.