laethin's version from 2017-12-18 17:08


Question Answer
Ambiguitytype of uncertainty of meaning in which several interpretations are plausible.
CollocationCollocation refers to a group of two or more words that usually go together. (make a cup of tea x do a cup of tea)
compensation in translation used when something cannot be translated, and the meaning that is lost is expressed somewhere else in the translated text.
communicative translation sense for sense translation. It’s goal is to make the same impression as the source text did to its readers. (perlocutionary effect)
connotationa commonly understood cultural or emotional association that some word or phrase carries
connotative meaningThe connotative meaning of a word includes the feelings and ideas that people may connect with that word.
cultural adaptation The use of a recognized equivalent between two situations. Adaptations, also known as “Free Translations” are when the translator substitutes cultural realities or scenarios for which there is no reference in the target language.
denotative meaningliteral or dictionary meanings of a word (denotative meaning – dove – bird x connotative – symbol of peace)
diminutivea modified word which is slightly different from its root form, often expresses the smallness of an object. They are often created by adding suffixes/affixes. Duck - duckling
explicitnessclearly formulated idea
explicitationgenerally defined as a shift in translation from what is implicit in the source text to what is explicit in the target text
expressive meaning expression which represents emotional attitude of the speaker
faux amis or false friends words in two languages that look or sound similar, but differ significantly in meaning sensible (english) but in french its meaning is sensitive
Fieldrefers to the subject matter or content being discussed
free translation a translation that reproduces the general meaning of the original text. It may or may not closely follow the form or organization of the original.
functional equivalence close to sense-to-sense translation. Its goal is to convey the meaning of the text rather than following the form of the source text.
Generalizationshift in translation; the term in source language is replaced by its hypernym in TL
Genreconventionalized form of speaking/writing which we associate with social occasions
Homonymwords which sound alike or are spelled alike, but have different meanings
Hypernymsuperordinate word
Hyponymsubordinate word
Idiomphrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning
implicitnessconsequence of implied, indirect statement
interlinear translation word for word translation often used in linguistic seminars to show the grammar of a language
interpretingTo translate from one language into another
consecutive interpretingthe interpreter speaks after the source-language speaker has finished speaking. The speech is divided into segments
simultaneous interpreting the interpreter translates the message in the target-language as quickly as he or she can formulate it from the source language, while the source-language speaker continuously speaks.
lexical meaning The meaning of a word considered in isolation from the sentence containing it , and regardless of its grammatical context
lexical set a group of words with the same topic, function or form.. 'Cat, dog, tortoise, goldfish, gerbil' is part of the topical lexical set pets
literal translation rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time – kindergarten = children garden
Moderefers to the channel (such as writing, or video-conference) of the communication.
Overtranslationthe TT is more specified than ST (the translator can explain some terms etc.)
pragmaticssubfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning The ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning
proofreadinga practise of checking a translated text to identify and correct spelling, grammar, syntax, and coherency.
Registera variety of a language(grammar, vocab,…) used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting; formal language, Slang, etc.
semantic field a set of words grouped semantically (by meaning) that refers to a specific subject. Dove, pidgeon, crow have the same semantic field.
source language in translationthe language being translated from
source text text the translator is given to translate
specificationshift in translation; the term in source language is replaced by its hyponym in TL
Synonyma word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another in the language
target language in translation the language being translated to
target text translation of the source text
technical translation a type of specialized translation involving the translation of documents produced by technical writers (owner's manuals, user guides, etc.), or more specifically, texts which relate to technological subject areas or texts which deal with the practical application of scientific and technological information.
Tenorrefers to the participants in a discourse, their relationships to each other, and their purposes
Undertranslationclose to free translation. Some things are not translated because it cannot Be translated to the TL
transcriptionThe rewriting or conversion of the characters of a text from one writing system to another.
substitutionthe form of the same meaning is replaced by another form.He was hesitant = Váhal (adj. X verb)
calquephrase borrowed from another language and translated literally word-for-word. skyscraper
transpositionprocess where parts of speech change their sequence when they are translated
modulationusing a phrase that is different in the source and target languages to convey the same idea – elbow of the pipe = koleno trubky
adaptationsomething specific to one language culture is expressed in a totally different way that is familiar or appropriate to another language culture. It is a shift in cultural environment

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