Pragmatics 7.0-7.5

blueghost's version from 2016-05-08 02:39


Question Answer
pragmatists...investigate the relationship between context and meaning
sentencephrasal expression that expresses some (complete) idea; abstract entity; represented by italics
utterancean event; something that happens; whenever a sentence has been spoken or signed; represented by quotations
context of utterencesproperties that include place; volume; speaker; etc.; used to figure out whether an utterance is appropriate in a setting
deitic wordsplaceholders; meanings always determined by context in which they are uttered
linguistic contextdealing with what precedes a particular utterance in a discourse; refers to what others have said earlier in the convo; tells what the speakers are talking about; made up of all the sentences that have been uttered leading up to the utterance in question
situational contextgives info about the situation in which an utterance is uttered; allows reference to things in the world around even if they have not been previously mentioned in the discourse
social contextinformation about the relationship between the people who are speaking and what their roles are; influences the meaning of utterances depending on who is speaking and relationships of those individuals
felicitous utterancesituationally appropriate; relative to the context in which it is uttered
infelicitous utteranceinappropriate in some way; not situationally appropriate
Cooperative PrincipleH.P. Grice; what we say in a convo should further the purpose of the conversation
maximsconversational rules that regulate conversation and enforce the cooperative principle; H.P. Grice; realistically they function as guidelines to ensure effective communication
maxims of quality do not say what you believe is false; do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence (in order to follow the first one we must also follow the second)
maxim of relevancealso called maxim of relation; contributions we make pertain to the subject of the conversation
inferencesassumptions can be made about what a particular utterance means; assumption that people we are talking with are cooperative and trying to further the convo
maxims of quantitymake your contribution as informative as required; do not make it more informative than required
maxims of mannerinstructions on how information should be given; critical in regulating how intelligible the speaker's utterances are--> avoid obscurity of expression (do not use words or phrases that are hard to understand); avoid ambiguity; be brief; be orderly
jargonterms restricted primarily to specialized areas of knowledge; referenced in the first statement of maxims of manner
flouting maximsusing maxims in order to communicate indirectly (ex: saying positive things about a person but basically feigning praise; changing a topic when the individual who was the subject is approaching; stating you are an imaginary thing to show that you dont believe what someone says)
conversation rules as social rules in competition with other social rules; maxims in essence are universal by implementation and interaction with other societal rules varies across cultures/societies
entailmentrelationship based on literal meaning--> can be drawn without context information; way of drawing conclusion from utterances; for any two sentences X and Y, sentence X entails sentence Y if whenever X is true, Y must be true as well; entailment shows speaker commitment and allows confident conclusions for the hearer
implying / implication sending the message without saying it directly
inference a conclusion that a person is reasonably entitled to draw based on a set of circumstances
implicaturewhen a speaker implies something using language, the utterance contains this; conclusions drawn about what people mean based on what we know about how conversation works ; often drawn based on the use of maxims
assertionconveys information
questionelicits information
request(more or less politely) elicits action or information
orderdemands action
promisecommits the speaker to an action
threatcommits the speaker to an action that the hearer does not want
felicity conditonsa set of conditions that must hold in order for that speech act to be felicitous ; these may be suspended in certain contexts
performative speech acta speech act that shows that we consider speech action just as legitimate as any other physical action; includes performative verbs
performative verbsverbs that denote purely linguistic actions (ex: assert, request, threaten, order, ask, advise)
hereby testplacing hereby in front of the performative verb to see if it sounds natural; if yes, it is a performative speech act
direct speech actsperform their functions in a literal manner; function that the sentence performs is evident from its literal meaning
indirect speech actswhat speaker actually means is different from what he/she actually says; do not literally state functions; often performed by appealing to a particular one of its felicity conditions; often indicative of politeness considerations on behalf of speaker
determining indirect speech actscheck to see if there is a performative verb (if yes, speech act is direct); see if there are violations in the literal meaning but not the intended meaning (if so, it is indirect); imagine context and consider the way people normally respond to it
presupposition an underlying assumption that must be satisfied in order for an utterance to make sense or for it to be debatable
satisfied presuppositionswhen participants in the discourse believe that the presupposed info is true (or act as though they do) before the sentence with the presupposition is uttered; can be done with common knowledge or previously mentioned knowledge in the discourse
existence presuppostionsuttering a sentence about a specific thing means that the speaker presupposes that the thing or person exists in order to say something about it
identifying unsatisfied presuppositionsif a sentence and its negation both seem equally untrue, then that sentence likely has an unsatisfied presupposition
presupposition triggerswords or phrases that often indicate the presence of a presupposition in the sentence
prosodic structure and presuppositionsusing pitch accents and where we put them can fore different info to be presupposed
accommodating in presuppostionsthe hearer behaves as though he/she had known the presupposed info all along and does not object to its insertion because the info is plausible; two requirements to accommodating--> plausibility and accessibility

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