Post-war prosperity and Conservative dominance (1957-64)

mcleishy's version from 2015-04-19 09:19


Question Answer
What did Macmillan say in the 1957 speech about the "age of affluence"? "Never had it so good"
What did Macmillan also warn about in his 1957 "Never had it so good speech"?The perils of inflation, and the "nightmare of unemployment"
Macmillan was famous for his elegance and calm, but what happened to him before speeches?He was physically sick
Despite his image of a "Tory Toff", what did Macmillan hold quite radical views on?Social Justice
What did Sunday Times journalist James Margach describe Mamillan as?Alongside Atlee, "one of the two most left-wing prime ministers of my forty years reporting politics"
What did Atlee say about Macmillan in 1951?That he nearly joined the Labour Party in the 1930's
Which members of Macmillan's cabinet were capable and efficient political managers, in tune with public opinion?Rab Butler, Iain Macleod, and Edward Boyle
How many seats did the Conservatives and Labour win in the 1959 election?365 and 258
How many seats did third-parties win in the 1959 election?7
What percentage of the vote did the Conservatives and Labour win in the 1959 election?49.4% and 43.8%
What percentage of the vote did third-parties win in the 1959 election? 6.8%
In the Summer of 1957, what economic problems were there, and why? Inflation because wages are running ahead of productivity, and a run on the pound due to fears it would be devalued against the dollar?
What policy put forth by Chancellor Peter Thorneycroft, was strongly opposed by other Cabinet Ministers such as Iain Macleod because it would lead to increased unemployment and cutbacks in housing?An early form of monetarism, where wage increases would be limited, and the money supply would be cut
What was the economic policy pursued by Macmillan?'Stop-go' economics
In 1958 Macmillan overruled Thorneycroft, prompting him to resign, but over what did Macmillan over-rule Thorneycroft?Drastic spending-cuts
Which junior ministers resigned alongside Thorneycroft, and what did this represent a victory for?Enoch Powell and Nigel Birch; The post-war consense
Why did the 1957 crisis not do drastic harm to Macmillan?The situation improved dramatically by 1959
How did Macmillan shrug off the resignations of Thorneycroft and Powell? 'a little local difficulty'
What had happened to the pound against the dollar by 1959?It regained it's value
By April 1959 the economy expanded, enabling how much to be given away in tax-cuts? £370 Million


Question Answer
How many votes did Labour win in the 1951 election, and what is significant about it?14 million, which was larger than any of Labour's election victories including the 1997 election.
What was Bevan's job in the 1951 government?He was Minister of Health
Why was Bevan a figure of hate amongst Conservatives?He described them as "lower than vermin" in 1948
Why did Bevan resign from government in 1951, an act which gained him the support of many Labour MP's and trade unionists?The introduction of prescription charges
Which Chancellor pushed through prescription charges?Hugh Gaitskell
Which Bevanite became shadow-chancellor under Gaitskell, but failed to bridge the cracks between the two camps?Harold Wilson
When did Britain first test an atomic bomb?1952
When did Britain first test the powerful hydrogen bomb?1957
When was the CND (Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament) formed?1958
What did the CND demand Britain go-ahead with?Unilateral Disarmament
In 1958 and 1959, where were marches against Nuclear Weapons held?The Weapons research base at Aldermaston in Berkshire
How many people went to the first march at Aldermaston?8 000
What union did Frank Cousins become leader of in 1956?Transport and General Workers Union (TGWU)
In 1959 and 1960 there were two feisty Labour Party Conferences, in which the future of the Labour Party was debated; where were they held?Blackpool and Scarborough
What did Hugh Gaitskell promise at the 1960 Labour Conference at Scarborough?To "fight and fight again to save the party we love"
What idea did Gaitskell consider at the 1959 Conference, but did not put to vote due to potential opposition from the left-wing and Trade Unions?Abolishing clause four of the party constitution, committing the party to Nationalisation.
Where was the SDP Conference, in 1959, where they dumped their Marxist ideas held?Bad Godesberg
When did the Labour Party finally abolish clause four?1994
Why did the Labour Part's position improve following 1960, and what symbolised this?A cultural shift which became less satisfied with affluence and more critical of government, symbolised with the rise of the satirical journal 'Private Eye' and TV show 'That Was The Week That Was'
When did Hugh Gaitskell die, meaning his successor Harold Wilson took charge?1963
When Wilson took charge in 1963, why were Labour's electoral prospects improving?Unexpected political problems, and typical economic problems


Question Answer
How did Macmillan describe political ups and downs?"Events, dear boy, events"
Despite taking the lead in forming the European Free Trade Area (EFTA), other Western European countries such as West Germany grew much faster than Britain, but when was the group formed?1959
The EEC was growing faster than EFTA; when did the Macmillan government submit an application to join the EEC?1961
What were the three key economic factors behind Macmillan's EEC application?Boosting industrial production for a large-scale export market - hope that international competition would boost industrial efficiency - hope the economic growth would be stimulated by the rapid economic expansion already undergoing in the EEC
When did the government introduce a 'pay pause' to hold down wage inflation?1961
What did Macmillan establish February n 1962 in order to get economic co-operation between government employers and unions?NEDC (National Economic Development Council)
What was the name given to the cabinet reshuffle in July 1962, where seven senior ministers were sacked, and Chancellor Selwyn Lloyd was replaced with 'rising star' Reginald Maudling?The Night of the Long Knives
How did Maudling attempt to avoid the threat of rising unemployment?Tax concessions and a policy of 'expansion without inflation'
What was the result of Maudling's policy to avoid rising unemployment?Deteriorating Balance of Payments and rising inflation
What did Edward Heath claim, was Macmillan's reaction to De Gaulle's veto?Bitter depression
What did Macmillan write in response to De Gaulle's EEC veto? "All our policies, at home an abroad are in ruins,,, we have lost everything"
How did the public react to the Beeching Report?There was public outrage, illustrating concerns over economic modernisation.
In 1951, Britain's share of world trade was 25%, what was this figure in 1975?10%
What did Unemployment average at through the post-war era?2%
What is one reason for the fast growth of Japan and Germany following the war?They had been so devastated by the Second World War that they had no choice but to completely restructure the economy
What was Britain's defence spending?An average of 2% per GDP
Why did the 'Night of the Long Knives' damage Macmillan?He was made to appear clumsy and out-of-touch
Why did the Profumo Affair remain in the headlines for months?There was a public inquiry, headed by a high-court judge
When was Macmillan hospitalised by a serious illness which required a major abdominal operation?Autumn 1963
When did Macmillan inform the queen of his decision to resign?October 1963
Who were the main candidates for Conservative leadership, following Macmillan's resignation?Rab Butler and Lord Halisham
What allowed Alec Douglas-Home to take the Conservative Party leadership?The Peerage Act which meant he could renounce his peerage, and take a seat in the House of Commons
For whom was Home an easy target?Satirists such as 'Private Eye' and 'That was the weal that was'
What did Gaitskell improve upon in the 1964 election campaign?His spoke more succinctly
What Labour election slogan, exploited the public mood that it was 'time for change'?"Thirteen years of Tory Misrule"
Which capable leader begun to revive the liberal party in 1964?Jo Grimmond
In 1962, where did the Liberals win a by-election in a previously safe Conservative seat?Orpington in Kent
Having never attracted more than 6 seats, or 2.5% of the vote since 1951, how many seats and votes did the Liberals win in the 1964 election?9 and 11.2%

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