Post natal growth

robbypowell's version from 2015-04-27 16:05

Post-natal Growth

Question Answer
The dimension of DEPTH refers to theAntero-Posterior dimension (front to back)
Length dimension refers to theUP-down dimension (superior/inferior)
What is the sequence of completion of facial growth of Length, Depth & Width?Width, Depth, Length (in that order)
What aspects of Facial Development are assessed by dentists/orthodontists?Pattern, Variability, Timing and Magnitude
POSTNATAL growth of the face is now known to extend into what decades of life?3rd and 4th decade
T/F: Normal development is the same as ideal developmentFalse, normal is NOT NECESSARILY IDEAL
What class of occlusion do we consider NORMAL?Class 1 occlusion
What class of occlusion is commonly referred to as an OVERBITEClass 2
What class of occlusion is commonly referred to as an UNDERBITEClass 3
What is class of occlusion if MB cusp of upper 1st molar is in MB groove of lower 1st molar?Class 1 occlusion
What is class of occlusion if DB cusp of upper 1st molar is in MB groove of lower 1st molar?Class 2 occlusion
What is class of occlusion if MB cusp of upper 1st molar is Distal to MB groove of lower 1st molar?Class 3
What is the prevalence for IDEAL OCCLUSION in the gen pop? (without intervention)30%
What is the prevalence for Class1 MALocclusion in the gen pop?55%
What is the prevalence for Class 2 malocclusion in gen pop?15%
What is the prevalence for Class 3 malocclusion in gen pop?<1%
What is the least common type of occlusion?Class 3 (<1%)
What is the most common type of occlusion?Class 1 (85% ideal + class malocclusion)
Class 2 and Class 3 malocclusions are usually due to position of ____mandible
The ____ ____ is used to assess the position of structures and their contribution to malocclusionCephalometric Radiograph
3 probable causes of malocclusion (things that would be in wrong position)Teeth, Maxilla, Mandible
Convex profile would usually be associated with what type of malocclusion?Class 2
Undergrowth of mandible would be expected to cause what type of malocclusion?Class 2
Micromaxilla would most commonly lead to what type of malocclusion?Class 3
A concave profile would usually be associated with what type of malocclusion?Class 3
Can Magnitude of maxillary and mandibular growth be modified?he just put question marks... so NO?
Can Direction of maxillary and mandibular growth be modified?YES
What does the Herbst appliance do, and what type of occlusion is its use associated with?Brings mandible forward, Class 2
What does Headgear do and what type of occlusion is its use associated with?Restrains maxillary growth, Class 2
What type of malocclusion is most likely to manifest LATE (in adulthood, or early adulthood)Class 3
Protraction Face Mask is used for what type of malocclusion?Class 3 (also called the reverse pull headgear)
What appliance/intervention is meant to restrain mandibular growth, but is not particularly effectiveChin Cup
An expansion appliance is used to treatNarrow palate, or Cross-bite
During postnatal growth a shrinking proportion of the ____ and increasing proportion of the ____ ____ occurs. This is referred to as ____ ____Head (relative to rest of body), Lower Limbs; Cephalocaudal Gradient
The volume change for the head and neck go from ___% of the total body at birth to ___% in the adult.30% (at birth), 12% (as adult)
The _____ _____ of growth can be seen even within the face; maxilla and the mandible grow proportionately more and for a longer period than the cranium.Cephalocaudal Gradient
The RESULTANT VECTOR of post-natal facial growth is ____ and ____Downward & Forward
What makes facial growth so difficult to predict and control?VARIABILITY in MAGNITUDE & DIRECTION of growth
Which GROWTH CURVE includes external dimensions of the body, respiratory and digestive organs, kidneys, aorta and pulmonary trunks, spleen, musculature, and skeleton?General Growth Curve
Which Growth Curve has 2 periods of pronounced growth? At what age ranges do these spurts occur?GENERAL growth curve; birth to age 5 & adolescence
Which Growth Curve demonstrates tissue enlargement to 200% of adult size between 10 and15 years?Lymphoid curve
Which growth curve demonstrates rapid growth up untill approximately 7 years of age at which time approximately 90-95% of its growth is completeNEURAL growth curve
Maxillary growth follows what growth curve?Neural growth curve (rapid growth until 7, critical period before age 10)
Mandibular growth follows what growth curve?General Growth curve (critical period in adolescence)
When is the best period for most orthodontic interventions that include growth modification (excluding extensive Maxillary intervention)Adolescence
When is the adolescent growth spurt in boys?(on average) 13-18
When is the adolescent growth spurt in girls?(on average) 11-14.5
Between boys and girls... which is it more important to assess for orthodontic treatment earlier?GIRLS. They have a shorter adolescent growth spurt & it occurs earlier
2 Developmental markers of boysVoice change, dark hair on upper lip
2 developmental markers of girlsbreast bud development (at beginning of spurt), Menarche (toward end of growth spurt)
What is the exception to adolescent treatment?Early Class 3 treatment (reverse pull face mask or reverse pull headgear) (maxillary expansion)
Bone formation which includes the formation of a cartilaginous model that is later calcified into boneEndochondral Ossification
Places of endochondral ossification that can produce a tissue separating force.Growth Center
Which of the following is NOT a growth center: Nasal Septum, Spheno-occipital Synchondrosis, Mandibular CondyleMAN CONDYLE is not growth center (b/c it has 2ndary cartilage, not primary)
A ____ ____ is simply a location of bone formation. Every growth center is a ___ ____ but the reverse is not true.GROWTH SITE
T/F: Every Growth Center is a Growth SiteTrue
T/F: Every Growth Site is a Growth CenterFalse
Movement of a bone in space through virtue of its own growth be it cortical drift or appositional growth at the sutures.Primary Displacement
Movement of a bone in space through growth of an adjacent or articulating bone or bones.Secondary Displacement
The bone itself is active in this type of displacementPrimary Displacement
The bone itself is not active in this type of displacementSecondary Displacement
T/F: Maxillary sutures are Growth CENTERSFALSE, they are growth sites, not centers
What appliance is designed utilizing functional matrix theory to alter the OROCAPSULAR matrix?Frankel Functional appliance
Enlow mapped the areas of apposition and deposition of many facial bones. He described many in terms of a _____ pattern of growth.V-shaped (Enlow's V Principle)
4 components of Craniofacial complex that grow differentlyCranial Vault, Cranial Base, Maxilla, Mandible
Growth of the Cranial Vault or desmocranium is 90-95% complete by _________ years of age7-8
Spheno-occipital synchondrosis-closure when?late teens
Intersphenoid synchondrosis-closure ageby 8 months
Spheno-ethmoidal synchondrosis-closure ageby 7 years
Growth of the cranial base progresses up to age 7 from growth at what 2 Synchondroses?Spheno-occipital & Spheno-ethmoidal
The _____ _____ is the only significant endochondral contributor to increasing cranial base length AFTER AGE 7.Spheno-occipital
While it remains active into the late teens, SOS contribution to maxillary growth continues to diminish after 7 years of age leaving ____ and ____ to complete the remodeling process.Apposition, Resorption
Autosomal dominant condition, produces short limbs and a cranial base that does not lengthen normallyAchondroplasia
Post-natal Facial Growth Pattern of ACHONDROPLASIAMIDFACE DEFICIENCY because of deficient growth at the synchondroses, the MAXILLA is NOT translated forward to the the normal extent\
sutural contribution to maxillary growth diminishes significantly by ___ to ___11-12
Prenatally, Maxilla develops by ____ ossificationIntramembraneous
(mandible) On average the ramus height increases ___to___ mm per year and body length increases __to__ mm per year.1-2; 2-3
What facial bone undergoes the GREATEST AMOUNT of POSTNATAL GROWTH?Mandible
T/F: There is an acceleration of growth in females in the early 20’s; a woman’s first pregnancy often produces growth of the jaws.True
Most prominent dimensional growth in adult lifeVertical Growth
T/F: The pattern of growth associated with an original malocclusion continued to express itself in adult life.True


Question Answer
What theory postulated that facial (maxillary) bone grows only by surface apposition and resoprtion?Brash's Bone Remodeling Theory (1930)
What theory claimed that bone growth in the maxillary SUTURES (alone) pushed the bones apart resulting in the downward and forward movement of the maxilla?Sicher's Sutural Theory (1940)
What theory supported the proposition that bone growth was primary with the sutures, cartilages and periosteum (considering them growth centers?)Sicher's Sutural Theory (1940)
What theory claimed that maxillary sutures were GROWTH SITES that drove facial development?Sicher's Sutural Theory (1940)
What theory claimed the nasal septum as the major contributor in maxillary growth?Nasal Septal Theory (1950's)
What theory fingered Nasal Septum as the “pacemaker”of growth of the upper part of the face?Nasal Septal Theory (1950's)
Who theorized that growth of the face occurs as a response to functional needs and neurotrophic influences and is mediated by the soft tissue in which the jaws are embedded?Melvin Moss (1960's) (Functional matrix theory)
Which theory is associated with EPIGENETIC CONTROL?Functional Matrix Theory (Melvin Moss, 1960's)
Which theory claimed that all bone and cartilage growth was controlled by extrinsic (epigenetic) soft tissue matrix growth and muscle function?Functional Matrix Theory (Melvin Moss, 1960's)
Two types of matrices described by Melvin Moss in Functional Matrix TheoryCapsular & Periosteal
Periosteal matrices are especially relevant to dentistry because of ____ and their actions on the ____ ligament and its subsequent effects on alveolar boneteeth, PDL