Population Genetics (Test 2)

amsykes's version from 2018-05-01 17:15

Section 1

Question Answer
Biological mechanismsThe species level theories and ideas that impact conservation
What are the four biological mechanisms?1. Life history strategies 2. Genetic issues 3. Habitat use and needs 4. Invasion ecology
Life history strategiesAll organisms have a unique niche within their ecosystem
What are the three functional niche types?1. Large predator: terrestrial= wolves and monitor lizards 2. Small predator: terrestrial=shrews and salamanders 3. Semi-aquatic predator: river otter and crocodile
Species acquiring niches is direct proof of _________.Evolution

Section 2

Question Answer
Which group occupies a smaller portion of the total ecosystem biomass, and relies on primary producers and consumers for their existence?Predators
Which group occupies more biomass than predators, and relies on producers?Herbivores
Which group makes up the majority of an ecosystem's biomass?Producers
What type of predatory animal eats food less frequently and has a slower metabolism Ecotherms (cold blooded animal)
Why is it important to understand predator prey interactions?Conservationists need to know the number of predators and resources present before successful introductions can occur
Top downPredator determine number of prey
Bottom upPrey determine the number of predators
True or False the predator prey relationships tend to be cyclical with ebbs and flows?True

Section 3

Question Answer
Top down example: Large mouth bassNumber of large mouth bass controls the crayfish population whose presence impacts macrophyte growth
Bottom up example: Snow shoe hareSnow shoe hare (forage base) booms-> Lynx population booms in response. Hares eat all the food available. No food = no hares and no hares = no lynx; both populations crash
Role of scavengers and detrivoresForage on the dead; without them carbon would be locked up in dead organisms (their importance is often times under appreciated and overlooked)
What are examples of scavengers and detrivores?Vultures, fungi, cockroaches, diptareans, and ologichetes
What are the two life history strategies that have been recognized since the 1900s?"r" and "k" selected
Which animals are "r" and "k" selected life history strategies modeled after?Mammals and birds (Theory of Island Geography: E.O. Wilson)

Section 4

Question Answer
What are "r" selected life history traits?High fecundity, high parity (no. of reproductive events), minimal parental care, short-lived, thrive in disturbed areas, and population makes up a high % of biomass
What are a few examples of "r" selected species?rabbits, deer mice, meadow voles, and rats
What is an example of an "r" selected carnivore exception?Short-tailed shrew are forest floor predators
What are "k" selected life history traits?Low fecundity, low parity, long lived, low carrying capacity, do not respond well to disturbance, and population make up a small% of ecosystem biomass
What is an example of a "k" selected species?Kangaroo

Section 5

Question Answer
What is the role of genetics in conservation?Captive rearing programs depend on on genetic diversity; identify adventitious and deleterious genes
What is the ultimate goal of conservation genetics?To create the most genetically diverse genetic pool possible for species
Genetic levels involved in conservation biology1. Allels manifest themselves in chromosomes 2. Chromosomes make up individual 3. Individuals make up population
What are 4 examples of genetic issues from small breeding stocks?1. Decreased immune response 2. Loss of advantageous alleles 3. Creation of genetic bottle necks 4. Creation of inbreeding depressions
What is an example of phenotypic response to inbreeding?Florida Panther have tufted fur and kinked tails

Section 6

Question Answer
What is the ultimate goal in conservation genetics?Heterozygosity (He); overall gene variation
What is the range of He?0-30%
What are the He% for plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates?Plants= 14% | Invertabrates=10% | Vertabrates=5%
The most important genes, advantageous ones, are associated with ________ ________.Adaptive radiation; evolutionary response that took a lot of time to produce
Breeding individuals with he highest He preserves...?Mutation (genetic drift) and fitness (evolutionary ability) even if the possibility of deleterious allele creation occurs
Allele or loci that show up frequently in one population that do not show in anotherHaplo type

Section 7

Question Answer
A species genetic diversity ultimately comes down to which two component parts?Population diversity and among population diversity*
What is the formula for populations with the high He?Ht=Hp(average divergence)+DpT(total genetic variation)
How does population size effect genetic diversity?Census breeding size (N): the larger the population size the greater the likelihood of random mating occurring, the greater the likelihood of equal sex rations, and non-overlapping generations
Why do genetically effective population size (Ne) display some level of inbreeding?Besides apes, most species don't have aversion to who they mate with.
Why do genetically effective population size (Ne) have constantly changing gene frequencies?"A deer in rut hits and quits all the females he can"

Section 8

Question Answer
What is a genetic bottleneck?The loss of heterozygosity when Ne is drastically reduced
What can a population with reduced He lead to?Loss of heterozygosity and rare alleles
What are a few examples of legacy effects caused by a genetic bottleneck?1. Loss of disease resistance 2. Reduced ability to adapt genetically 3. Reduces evolvability
What are inbreeding depressions?Reduced biological fitness as a result of breeding between related individuals
What are a few examples of effects of inbreeding?Reduced growth rate, Decline in reproductive capability, and a drop in disease resistance

Section 9

Question Answer
What are outbreeding depressions?When progeny resulting from crosses between genetically distant populations exhibit lower fitness than either of their parents or than progeny from crossed between individuals that are more closely related
What is an example of an outbreeding depression?If an animal of large body size mates with an animal of small body size to produce a medium sized animal, then it is not well adapted for either parent's environment and may be considered less "fit" than its parents.
What is outbreeding enhancement?Sometimes the mixing of gene pools is beneficial, producing hybrid offspring that is genetically superior to either of its parents.

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