PolySci Ch. 8

kennedipierce's version from 2015-05-11 23:51

Section 1

Question Answer
Federal bureaucracy The thousands of federal government agencies and institutions that implement and administer federal laws and programs
Spoils system The firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party to replace them with loyalists of the newly elected party
Patronage Jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support
Pendalton ActReform measure that establish the principle of federal employment on the basis of open, competitive exams and created the Civil Service Commission
Merit systemA system of omployment based on qualifications, test scores, and ability, rather than party loyalty

Section 2

Question Answer
Civil Service SystemThe merit system by which many federal bureaucrats are selected
Independent regulatory commissionAn entity created by Congress outside a major executive department
Departments Major administrative units with responsibility for a broad area of government operations. Departmental status usually indicates a permanent national interest in a particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture
Independent executive agenciesGovernmental units that closely resemble a Cabinet department but have narrower areas of responsibility and preform services rather than regulatory functions
Government corporations Businesses established by Congress to preform functions that private businesses could provide

Section 3

Question Answer
Hatch ActThe 1939 act to prohibit civil servants from taking activists roles in partisan campaings. This act prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular party, or campaigning for a particular candidate
ImplementationThe process by which a law or policy is put into operation
Iron triangle The relatively ironclad relationships and patterns of interactions that occur among agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees
Issue networks The loose and informal relationships that exist among a large number of actors who work in broad policy areas
Interagency councils Working groups created to facilitate coordination of policy making and implementation across a host of governmental agencies
Policy coordinating committees Subcabinet-level committees created to facilitate interactions between agencies and departments to handle complex policy problems

Section 4

Question Answer
Administrative discretionThe ability of bureaucrats to make choices concerning the best way to implement congressional or executive intentions
Rule makingA quasi-legislative process resulting in regulations that have the characteristics of a legislative act
RegulationsRules governing the operation of all government programs that have the force of law
Administrative adjudicationA quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes

Section 5