PolySci Ch. 5

kennedipierce's version from 2015-05-11 18:00

Section 1

Question Answer
Thirteenth Amendment One of three Civil War Amendments; specifically cans slavery in the United States
Black Codes Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed bu southern states following the Civil War
Fourteenth Amendment One of the three Civil War Amendments; guarantees equal protection and due precess of the law to all U.S. Citizens
Equal protection clause Section of the Fourteenth Amendment that guarantees all citizens receive "equal protection of the laws"
Fifteenth Amendment One of the three Civil War Amendments; specifically enfranchised newly freed clae slaves
Jim Crow LawsLaws enacted by southern states that required segregation in public schools, heaters, hotels, and other public accommodations
Civil Rights Cases (1883) Name attached to five cases brought under the Civil Rights Act of 1875. In 1883, the Supreme Court decided that discrimination in a variety of public accommodations, including theaters, hotels, and railroads, could not be prohibited by the act because such discrimination was private, not state, discrimination
Poll taxA tax levied in many southern states and localities that had to be paid before an eligible voter could cast a ballot

Section 2

Question Answer
Grandfather clause Voter qualification provision in many southern states that allowed only those citizens whose grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction to vote unless they passed a wealth or literacy test
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)Supreme Court case that challenged a Louisiana statute requiring that railroads provide separate accommodations for blacks and whites. The Court found that separate-but-equal accommodations did not violate the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment
Suffrage movement The drive for voting rights for women that took place in the United States from 1890 to 1920
Nineteenth Amendment Amendment to the Constitution that guaranteed women the right to vote
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) U.S. Supreme Court decision holding that school segregation is inherently unconstitutional because it violates the Fourteenth Amendment's guarantee of equal protection

Section 3

Question Answer
Civil Rights Act of 1964 Wide-ranging legislation passed by Congress to outlaw segregation in public facilities and discrimination in employment, education, and voting; created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Equal Rights Amendment Proposed amendment to the Constitution that states "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex"
Suspect classification Category or class, such as race, that triggers the highest standard of scrutiny from the Supreme Court
Strict Scrutiny A heightened standard of review used by Supreme Court to determine the constitutional validity of a challenged practice
Equal Pay Act of 1963Legislation that requires employers to pay men and women equal pay for equal work

Section 4

Question Answer
Title IX Provisions of Education Amendments of 1972 that bars educational institutions that receive federal funds from discriminating against female students
Affirmative Action Policies designed to give special attention or compensatory treatment to members of a previously disadvantaged group