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PolySci Ch. 3

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kennedipierce's version from 2015-05-11 16:17

Section 1

Question Answer
Federal system System of government in which the national government and state governments share power and derive all authority from the people
Unitary system System of government in which the local and regional governments derive all authority from a strong national government
Enumerated powers The powers of the national government specifically granted to Congress in Article I, section 8 of the Constitution
Implied powersThe powers of the national government derived from the enumerated powers and the necessary and proper clause
Tenth Amendment The final part of the Bill of Rights that defines the basic principle of the American federalism in stating that the powers not delegated to the national government are reserved to the states of to the people
Reserved powers Powers reserved to the states by the 10th amendment that lie at the foundation of a state's right ti legislate for the public health and welfare of its citizens
Concurrent powers Powers shared by the national and state governments
Bill of attainder A law declaring an act illegal without a judicial trial
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Section 2

Question Answer
Ex post facto law Law that makes an act punishable as a crime even if the action was legal at the time it was committed
Full faith and credit clause Section of Article IV of the Constitution that ensures judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any other state
Privileges and immunities clause Part of Article IV of the Constitution guaranteeing that the citizens of each state are afforded the same rights as citizens of all other states
Extradition clause Part of Article IV of the Constitution that requires states to extradite, or return, criminals to states to extradite, or return, criminals to states where they have been convicted or are to stand trial
Interstate compactsContracts between states that carry out the force of law; generally now used as a tool to address multistate policy concerns
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Section 3

Question Answer
Dillon's Rule A premise articulated by Judge John F. Dillon in 1868 which states that local governments do not have any inherent sovereignty and instead must be authorized by state governments that can create or abolish them
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) The Supreme Court upheld the power of the national government and denied the right of a state to tax the federal bank, using the Constitution's supremacy clause. The Court's broad interpretation of the necessary and proper clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) The Supreme Court upheld broad congressional power to regulate interstate commerce. The Court's broad interpretation of the Constitution's commerce clause paved the way for the later rulings upholding expansive federal powers
Barron v. Baltimore (1833)The Supreme Court ruled that the due process clause of the fifth amendment did not apply to the actions of states. This decision limited the Bill of Rights to the actions of Congress alone
Dual federalism The belief that having separate and equally powerful levels of government is the best arrangement, often referred to as layer-cake federalism
Nullification The right of a state to declare void a federal law
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Section 4

Question Answer
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) The Supreme Court concluded that the U.S. Congress lacked the constitutional authority to bar slavery in the territories. This decision narrowed the scope of national power, while it enhanced that of the states
Sixth Amendment Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that authorized Congress to enact a national income tax
Seventeenth Amendment Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that made senators directly elected by the people, removing their selection from state legislatures
Cooperative federalism The intertwined relationship between the national, state, and local governments that began with the New Deal, often referred to as a marble-cake federalism
New Deal The name given to the program of "Relief, Recovery, Reform" begun by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933 to bring the United States out of the Great Depression
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Section 5

Question Answer
Categorical grantGrant that appropriates federal funds to states for a specific purpose
New federalism Federal-state relationship proposed by Reagan administration during the 1980's; hallmark is returning administrative powers to the state governments
Block grant A large grant given to a state by the federal government with only general spending guidelines
Programmatic request Federal funds designated for special projects within a state or congressional district
Preemption A concept that allows the national government to override state or local actions in certain policy areas
Progressive federalism A pragmatic approach to federalism that views relations between national and state government as both coercive and cooperative
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