PolySci Ch. 2

kennedipierce's version from 2015-05-11 15:43

Section 1

Question Answer
MercantilismAn economic theory designed to increase a nation's wealth through the development of commercial industry and a favorable balance of trade
Stamp Act CongressMeeting of representatives of nine of the thirteen colonies held in NY in 1765, during which representatives drafted a document to send to the king that listed how their rights had been violated
Committees of CorerespondenceOrganizations in each of the American colonies created to keep colonists abreast of developments with the British; served as powerful molders of public opinion against the British
First Continental CongressMeeting held in Philadelphia from Sept. 5 to Oct. 26, 1774, in which fifty-six delegates (from every colony except Georgia) adopted a resolution in opposition to the Coercive Acts
Second Continental CongressMeeting that convened in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775, at which it was decided that an army should be raised and George Washington of Virginia was named commander in chief
Declaration of Independence Document drafted largely by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 that proclaimed the right of the American colonies to separate from Great Britain

Section 2

Question Answer
Articles of Confederation the compact between the thirteen original colonies that created a loose league of friendship, with tha national government drawing its powers from the states
Confederation Type of government in which the national government derives it powers from the states; a league of independent states
Constitution A document establishing the structure, functions, and limitations of a government
Virginia Plan The first general plan for the Constitution offered in Philadelphia. Its key points were bicameral legislature, as well as en executive and judiciary chosen by the national legislature
New Jersey Plan A framework for the Constitution proposed by a small group of small states. Its key points were a one-house legislature with one vote for each state, a Congress with the ability to raise revenue, and a Supreme Court with members appointed for life
Great CompromiseThe final decision of the Constitutional Convention to create a two-house legislature, with the lower house elected by the people and with powers divided between the two houses. It also made national law supreme
Three-Fifths CompromiseAgreement reached at the Constitutional Convention stipulating that each slave was to be counted as three-fifths of a person for purposes of determining population for representation in the U.S. House of Representatives

Section 3

Question Answer
Separation of powers A way of dividing the power of government among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, each staffed separately, with equality and independence of each branch ensured by the Constitution
Checks and balances A constitutionally mandated structure that gives each of the three branches of government some degree of oversight and control over the actions of the others
Federal systemSystem of government in which the national government and state governments share power and derive all authority from the people
Enumerated powers The powers of the national government specifically granted to Congress in Article I, section 8 of the Constitution
Necessary and proper clause The final paragraph of Article I, section 8, of the Constitution, which gives Congress the authority to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers specified in the Constitution; also called the elastic clause
Implied powers The powers of the national government derived from the enumerated powers and the necessary and proper clause

Section 4

Question Answer
Full faith and credit clause Section of Article IV of the Constitution that ensures judicial decrees and contracts made in one state to be binding and enforceable in any other state
Supremacy clausePortion of Article VI of the Constitution mandating that national law is supreme to (that is, supersedes) all other laws passed by the states or by any other subdivision of government
FederalistsThose who favored a stronger national government and supported the proposed U.S. Constitution; later became the first U.S. political party
Anti-Federalists Those who favored strong state governments and a weak national government; opposed ratification of the U.S. Constitution
The Federalist PapersA series of eighty-five political essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in support of ratification of the U.S. Constitution
Bill of RightsThe first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which largely guarantee specific rights and liberties