PolySci Ch. 12

kennedipierce's version from 2015-05-12 03:12

Section 1

Question Answer
Nomination campaign Phase of a political campaign aimed at winning a primary election
Primary electionElection in which voters decide which of the candidates within a party will represent the party in the general election
General election campaignPhase of a political campaign aimed at winning election to office
General electionElection in which voters decide which candidates will actually fill elective public offices
Campaign managerThe individual who travels with the candidate and coordinates the campaign
Finance chairThe individual who coordinates the financial business of the campaign
Communications director The person who developes the overall media strategy for the candidate

Section 2

Question Answer
Press secretary The individual charged with interacting and communicating wiht journalist on a daily basis
Campaign consultant A private-sector professional who sells to a candidate the technologies, services, and strategies required to get the candidate elected
PollsterA campaign consultant who conducts public opinion surveys
Voter canvassThe process by which a campaign reaches individual voters, either by door-to-door solicitation or by telephone
Get-out-the-vote (GOTV)A push at the end of a political campaign to encourage supporters to go to the polls

Section 3

Question Answer
527 political committee Organization created with the primary purpose of influencing electoral outcomes; the term is typically applied only to freestanding interest groups that do not explicitly advocate for the election of a candidate
501(c) groupsInterest groups who primary purpose is not electoral politics
Super PACsPolitical action committees established to make independent expenditures
Independent expendituresSpending for campaign activity that is not coordinated with a candiadte's campaign
Public fundsDonations from public tax revenues to the campaign of qualifying presidential candidates
Matching fundsDonations to presidential campaigns whereby every dollar raised by individuals in amounts less than $251 is matched by the federal treasury

Section 4

Question Answer
Positive adAdvertising on behalf of a candidate that stresses the candidates qualifications, family, and issue positions, with no direct reference to the opponent
Negative adAdvertising on behalf of a candidate that attacks the opponents character or platform
Contrast adAd that compares the records and proposals of the candidates, with a bias toward the candidate sponsoring the ad
Inoculation adAdvertising that attempts to counteract an anticipated attack from the opposition before the attack is launched
Front-loadingThe tendency of staates to chose an early date on the nomination calendar
Electoral CollegeRepresentatives of each state who cast the final ballots that actually elect a president
Elector Member of the Electoral College

Section 5

Question Answer
ReapportionmentThe reallocation of the number of seats in the House of Representatives after each decennial census
IncumbencyAlready holding an office
Mid-term electionAn election that takes place in the middle of a president term
Retrospective judgment A voter's evaluation of a candidate based on past preformance on a particular issue
Prospective judgment A voter's evaluation of a candidate based on what he or she pledges to do about an issue if elected
Turnout The proportion of the voting-age public that casts a ballot