PolySci Ch. 11

kennedipierce's version from 2015-05-12 02:44

Section 1

Question Answer
Political party An organized group with shared goals and ideals that joins together to run candidates for office and exercise political and electoral power
Interest groupA collection of people or organizations that tries to influence public policy
Political machine A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity
Candidate-centered politics Politics that focus on the candidates, their particular issues, and character rather than party affiliation
Party realignmentDramatic shifts in partisan preferences that drastically alter the political landscape
Critical election An election that signals a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues and personalities
Secular realignment The gradual rearrangement of party coaliations, based more on demographic shifts than on shocks to the political system
Polarization The presence of increasingly conflicting and divided viewpoints between the Democratic and Republican parties

Section 2

Question Answer
National conventionA party meeting heldin the presidential election year for the purposes of nominating a presidential and vice presidential ticket and adopting a platform
National party platformA statement of the general and specific philosophy and policy goals of a political party, usually promulgated at the national conventions
Party identificantions A citizen's personal affinity for a political party, usually expressed by tendency to vote for the candidates of that party
Social capitalCooperative relationships that facilitate the resolution of collective problems
Civic virtue The tendency to form small-scale associations for the public good
Pluralist theory The theory that political power is distributed among a wide array of diverse and competing interest groups
Disturbance theory The theory that interest groups form as a result of changes in the political system
Transaction theoryThe theory that public policies are the result of narrowly defined exchanges or transactions among political actors

Section 3

Question Answer
Collective goodSomething of value that cannot be withheld from a nonmember of a group, for example, a tax write-off or a better environment
PatronA person who finances a group or individual activity
Free rider problemPotential members fail to join a group because they can get the benefit, or collective good, sought by the group without contributing the effort
LobbyistInterest group representative who seeks to influence legislation that will benefit his/her organization or client through political and/or financial persuasion
Trade association A group that represents a specific industry
LobbyingThe activities of a group or organization that seek to persuade political leaders to support the group's position

Section 4

Question Answer
Political action committee (PAC) Officially recognized-fundraising organizations that represent interest groups and are allowed by federal law to make contributions directly to candidates campaign's
Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007Lobbying reform banning girfts to members of Congress and their staffs, toughening disclosure requirements, and increasing time limits on moving from the federal government to the private sector