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POLS111

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tasnimjaisee's version from 2018-02-12 02:24

Chapter 1

Question Answer
PoliticsInfluencing/making/implementing collective decisions for political community
PowerAbility to achieve an objective by influencing behaviour of others
First face of PowerAbility to effect decisions
Second Face of PowerAbility to ensure that issues are not raised
Third Face of PowerAbility to affect dominant ideas of society
IndictmentAchieving outcome by offering bribe
PersuasionTruthful information to encourage people to act in accordance
Political agendaIssues considered important & given priority
Free Rider ProblemEnjoying benefits of group without contributing
AuthorityExercise power accepted by those being governed as legitimate
LegitimacyAcceptance by political community that authority have right to govern
Weber’s types of authoritiesCharismatic, Traditional. Legal-rational
Common goodWhat is good for entire political community
Individualistic perspectiveSees human beings acting according with interests
Pluralist SystemLarge number of groups represent wide variety of interests influencing the government. Government satisfies many groups as possible with no dominant groups influencing decisions
Empirical AnalysisObservation & comparison developing generalization & testable theories
Normative AnalysisHow community should be governed & what values to pursue
Policy AnalysisEvaluates existing policies & asserts alternatives
"What is the best way of increasing proportion of women in parliament?": P/N/EP
"Should legislatures be a microcosm of society?": P/N/EN
"Why are women less likely than men to run for Parliament?": P/N/EE
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Chapter 3

Question Answer
Political IdeologyInterrelated ideas & beliefs about government, society, economy & human nature inspiring political action.
EnlightenmentPower of human reason to understand & improve the world
IdeologyScience of ideas; Used as opponents to assert others' negative way of thinking
PragmaticPractical & common sense
IdeologueUsed to characterize opponents’ argument
DogmaticTrying to incontrovertibly state argument
Rule of LawGovernment acts according to established laws
Liberal DemocracyLimited government, individual freedom & rule of law
Classic LiberalismLimited government & free market
Laissez-Faire economic systemFavoured by CL’s. Workers, consumers & private businesses interact freely in market without government.
Reform LiberalismIndividual freedom, government action remove obstacles
Which liberalism is against LFES?Reform Lib
Neo-LiberalismFree market & opposition to government economy intervention
Difference between Neo-liberalism & neo-conservatismNeoliberalism = Free market desire & Neoconservatism = culture, morals & strong military
ConservatismOrder, stability, respect for authority & tradition. Humans are imperfect with limits to reasoning
ReactionariesRespond to French Revolution failures, advocating values of older order
Welfare StateAll people have decent living, protection from hardships (unemployment, sickness, disability & age)
New Right1970, free market capitalism, limited government, traditional & moral values.
New LeftLiberation of marginalized oppression will be fundamental change
Axis of EvilBush: Iran, Iraq, North Korea
Economic ConservativesReduce government spending, cutting taxes, eliminating government debt.
Social ConservativesCritical of individual freedom, materialism & want government to create moral communities
SocialismHumans are social, capitalism undermines co-operative & community oriented nature of humanity. Egalitarian society
Historical MaternalismDevelopment of society is understood if the product organization is looked at; Production involves exploitation
Communist SocietyCollective ownership & everyone is free to take from society what they need
LeninismThought capitalism would be overthrown only by force; revolutionary vanguard
Democratic SocialismOnly democracy is used to work for a socialist society
Social DemocracyCapitalist economy is to be reformed for common good
Third WayGreater acceptance of free market, globalization, individualism & personal responsibility
Left-wing AnarchismOppose state & capitalist system
Right-wing AnarchismWants individualism & free market capitalism
FascismCritical of Enlightenment. Aggressive nationalism & naturalness of inequality.
Socials DarwinistCompetition & conflict let’s humanity evolve (survival of the fittest)
Corporate StateMethod used by Mussolini, business & labour work together for advancing nation good
memorize

Chapter 4

Question Answer
AnthropocentrismFocusing human wellbeing at center of political thought
EnvironmentalismHuman relationship with nature needs to change to protect it & ensure sustainability of all life forms
EcocentrismNature has intrinsic value, not valued in use for human beings
Ecological FootprintIf all humans impacted earth as an average person in richer countries; we would need 2+ earths to sustain
SustainabilityEcosystem integrity: Renewable resources not exceeding regeneration rate - Substitutes replacing non-renewable sources - Pollutant emission not exceed ecosystem ability
Sustainable DevelopmentMeeting needs of present without compromising future. Needs of poor is fulfilled & environment is protected
Reform EnvironmentalismBetter science, technology & management fixes environmentalism issues
Free-Market EnvironmentalismFree market/private property protect environment - private farm, forest/fisheries as government owns the resources & impose regulations for the owners; doesn’t work for large multinational corporations
Deep EcologyAnthropology causes environmental degradation - Advocates environmental consciousness & oneness with world - Unity with humans, plants, animals & earth; Less population = simpler life
Social EcologySocial, economic & political hierarchy & domination as cause of human & environmental problems
memorize

Chapter 2

Question Answer
Stateindependent, self governing political community whose governing institutions make rules binding population in particular territory - Political community rather than government
GovernmentInstitutions making decisions implementation behalf of state
GDPGross domestic product - GDP is higher in richer countries
SovereigntyStates are highest authority for their population & territory & are not subject to any external authority
Explain Peace of WestphaliaProtestant vs. Catholics; States & their rulers were supreme authority
GovernanceDecisions involving state & non-state actors
Central Principle of International LawStates are equal to each other
Failed StateUnable to maintains laws, order & basic services
Nation-StateSovereign state with people sharing common identity as nation member
NationHaving self-governance & common identity in homeland
Civic NationalismShaped political history & values of country’s citizens; nationhood
Ethnic NationalismAncestry traditions & language associated with ethnic group
National Self-DeterminationNations’ rights determine political status; a sovereign state
GreenpeaceVancouver organization concerned for nuclear testing in Alaska to international organization involved in environmental causes
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Chapter 10

Question Answer
DemocracyRule by the people
Democratic IdealAdult citizens have equal and effective voice in decisions of political communities to which they belong to
Direct DemocracyCitizens make governing decisions Modern applications of Direct democracy: Initiatives & citizen forums
Representative DemocracyCitizens elect representatives in legislature to make decisions
LegislatureApproval of legislation & raising & spending of funds by government
Liberal DemocracyLimited government & individual freedom, governing based on representative election
Principles of liberal democracyGoevrnment does not rule arbitaritu, freedom expression of from people and media & freely compete for pwoer
Civil SocietyGroups & organizations not controlled by state
American CongressRepresentatives elected to House of Representatives & The Senate
TransparancyGovernment operations are visible to people. People need access to information to hold government accountable; open government
Democratic DeficitPublic dissatisfaction with democratic government performance: low voter turnout = low voter trust. Results in increased protest activity and feeling of ordinary people with no power.
Plebiscitary DemocracyCitizens with greater controls than representative democracy through referendums, initiatives & recall elections
PopulismPower in hands of people; not the elite
ReferendumVote by citizen on particular issue or law
3 national level canadian referendumsLiquor, ww2 conscription, charlottewon
RecallCitizens remove representative from office. Petition signatures, citizens require representatives seek re-election before end of term
Deliberative DemocracyDecisions made by citizen discussions; not representatives
memorize

Chapter 8

Question Answer
Self-Interest GroupsPromotes interests of group & momerbs seek benefits for its members
Public-Interest GroupsAchieves goals that group views to for good of community
Issue-Oriented Interest GroupSpontaneously developed to express views
Anti-Adams Mine CoalitionSuccessful in reversal of sending garbage to mines
North Dufferin Agricultural & Community TaskforceSuccessful in full environmental assessment of application to build limestone & aggregate quarry would destroy farmland & water supplies
Institutionalized Interest GroupsFormal organization, well-established members, paid staff, offices & capabilities to keep members & public aware of views & activities
Selective IncentivesBenefit made available to ONLY members of interest group
Inside StrategiesInterest group leaders develop close contact with decision makers in government & public service to influence public policies
Outside StrategiesInterest group leaders appeal to public for support; mobilizing members to put pressure on decision makers concerning public policies
Neo-CorporatismState actively collaborates with major interests (national organizations of business & labour) seeking consensus of major economic & social policies
LobbyingPersuading legislators/executives/public officials; personal contact, adopting & implementing policies favoured by individual/business/group
Think-TanksNon-Profit organizations that do policy research & proposals
C.D Howe Institute & Fraser Institute influence?Policy development
Canadian Centre for Policy Alternativessupported by labour unions & members
Libertarian Perspective on the Mass MediaIf the mass media are government control free, individuals can retain information in their own ways
Social Responsibility Perspective on the Mass MediaMedia has responsibility to public. Freeing media from government regulation doesn’t result in public interest being served
Dominant Ideology PerspectiveMajor Media conveys values of those who benefit status quo
News ManagementShaping news to affect public evaluation of news stories - Used mostly during wars and international affairs: to not plant false stories
Spin DoctorsDuring leder debates, they persuade journalists: explaining away mistakes
InfotainmentInformation and entertainment merged in news and public affairs programming mass media (television)
memorize

Chapter 7

Question Answer
Universal SuffrageAdult citizens having the right to vote regardless gender, ethnicity etc
How can we pursue universal sufferage?Create provision for individuals away from home Rid of difficult voting registration
Gerrymandermanipulate boundaries of (an electoral constituency) to favor 1 party
Electoral SystemTranslating votes into composition of legislature & government selection
Types of electoral systemsPlurality/majoritarian (single member, runoff & preferential) - Proportional Representation - Mixed member proportional
SMPVoters in each electoral district elect single representative to legislature. With most votes: elected, through non-majority
SMP ConsInaccurately translates votes that party receives into seats - Boosts representation to leading party
Electoral CollegeElects president of US, Members of electoral college from each state are expected to vote for candidate who won most votes in the state
Runoff ElectionsIf no candidate receives majority vote; top candidates appear on 2nd ballot Candidates with ⅛ of total electorate votes remain on 2nd ballot
Preferential Voting/Alternative voteVoters rank candidates in preference order. If no candidate wins majority, least voted candidate is dropped. 2nd preference are added to vote, continues until majority has chosen one party
Closed PRLegislators are selected based on placement on lost of candidates drawn by each party
Open PRIndicate which candidate they prefer from the party
Coalition Government2 or more parties jointly govern, sharing cabinet position - Parties need to have certain percentage of popular vote prerequisites legislative seats
Cons of Coalition GovernmentReduces strength of legislator & district
Compensatory MMP system (Spain & Norway)PR is used to compensate parties hurt by SMP
Parallel MMP system (Sweden, Poland & NorwayPart of legislation elected by SMP and other part by PR without using PR seats compensating distortion of SMP
Single Transferable Vote SystemVoters rank order of candidates. Candidates with certain percentage, are elected
Premodern CampaignsPersonal contact with voters; localized campaigns - All-candidate meetings regularly
Modern Election CampaignsPublic opinion polling used for campaigns - More centrally controlled - Photo-ops on television - Focuses on party leader than on political party affiliation - Professional expertise
Postmodern CampaignsNew forms of communication adds interaction & personality: Social media, direct mail, telemarketing - Controlling message & developing capability to instantly rebut opposition - Internet fundraising → Echo chamber
Party IdentificationLong-term psychological attachment to political party
memorize