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Politics in USSR

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noorgal's version from 2018-05-23 11:52

Section 1

Question Answer
What was the government like before the Bolshevik revolution?Strong government, but weak economy. Very repressive e.g. 1912- Lena Goldmine strike
What were the USSR's biggest opposition parties?Social Democratic Labour party and Socialist revolutionaries
What was the effect of WWI on Russiamilitary defeat and economic mismanagement = Tsar overthrown replaced by prov. gov.
Why did Russia not perform well in WWI?Economy wasn't strong and Tsar was a bad war time leader
What was the Provisional government like?liberal freedom and democracy - headed by Kerensky
When did Lenin announce the need for a 2nd revolution?April 1917
When did Lenin and Bolsheviks overthrow the provisional govOctober 1917
What was Lenin's ideology?Avid marxist: Global revolution, class conflict needed. 'Dictatorship of the proletariat' and 'Ruthless power to destroy capitalists'
How was Russia governed from Feb-October 1917?Via local soviets
When did the All-Russian Congress of Soviets meet for the first time?June 1917
Why was the Sovnarkom introduced?Since the congress was too big to meet regularly
What was the Sovnarkom?Cabinet of 13 commissars including Trotsky and Stalin
Why was Sovnarkom initially ineffective?Had little real power, and poorly organised
When was the Decree on Land (peasants seize land from nobility) ?October 1917
When was the Decree of Peace (Withdraw from WWI)?October 1917
When was the Worker's Decree (8 hr day + min wage)?November 1917
When was the Decree of Worker's council (workers elect committee to run factories)?April 1918
How did Lenin establish control over Russia and reconstruct economy?Popular policies such as decrees and ending WWI
How was Lenin's USSR democratic?Committees of working people in day to day governing, constitution of 1918
How was Lenin's USSR undemocratic?Constituent assembly - refused to accept Nov 1917 election which made Bolsheviks a minority
When was the unpopular treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which gave Russian territory to central powers?March 1918
What was the effect of signing the Brest-Litovsk?Bolsheviks lost April-May 1918 elections - refused to accept
What were the two sides in the civil war?Reds and Whites (Mensheviks, SRs, imperialists and anarchists)
When did General Kornilov create an anti-bolshevik army which kickstarted the civil war?January 1918
When did the Civil war last?Summer 1918-1921
What was the government like during the civil war?centralised, war communism, nomenklatura and authoritarian red army
What was the party-state like during the civil war?Politburo within party = most powerful. Sovarnakom diminished function = clear communist voice
When did Lenin create Politburo and state parallel structures to exclude other parties1921
When was the Cheka created?December 1917
What is an example of the Cheka's violence?Kremenchuk Church leaders impaled
What was the Red army like in the civil war?Tsarist generals in charge of army = outrage, but successful
What happened after the civil war?Popular unrest
When did peasants attack government grain stores along volga?March 1921
What caused the January 1921 peasant rebellion in Tambov?Droughts of 1920/21, Cheka violence, grain requisitioning
When was the Tambov rebellion led by Antonov and 50,000 anti-com fighters?January 1921
What happened in the post-civil war strikes in Petrograd?The red army opened fire on unarmed workers
How did the party respond to unrest post civil war?Suppression of opposition parties = one party sate
When were the Cheka authorised to destroy opposition's political parties?February 1921
What happened in the 1921 Party congress?NEP introduced, 'On Party Unity' banned factionalism
Why as the 1921 'On Party Unity' successful?strengthen Lenin's power as opposition was difficult to organise
When was the Government effectively educated middle class, not working class?1921
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Section 2

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