Politics and the Economy (1975-83)

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Section 1


Question Answer
Labour created a surge in inflation due to pay-settlements given to end industrial disputes, what were some as high as?30%
What was inflation in early 1975?20%
When did Healey impose steep rises in taxation?April 1975
What did Healey limit wage increases to in his 1976 budget?A maximum of 3%
Healey's decision to nationalise which industry created controversy?British Leyland
Which left-wingers opposed Healey's wage controls?Michael Foot and Tony Benn
When did Harold Wilson suddenly resign?March 1976
What did Anthony Howard of the Observer say about Wilson's resignation?He was 'gob-smacked'
Why did Harold Wilson resign in 1976?In 1974, he had told his wife Mary that he would retire in two years. Later research has since shown that he was suffering from early onset Alzheimer's
What was Callaghan perceived as, when taking Labour leadership?A 'safe pair of hands', with experience, good links to the unions, and who would maintain party unity.
What reduced Labour's tiny parliamentary majority in 1976?By-Election defeats
In December 1976 how much money did Healey request from the IMF in an emergency loan?$3 Billion
What did the government have to make, in return for an emergency loan from the IMF?The government would have to make big spending cuts
Callaghan handled the IMF crisis well, and the economy begun to recover, so why did it damage the Labour Party?It reinforced the image of economic decline.
What did Callaghan promise, as part of the "Lib-Lab" pact, where 12 Liberal MP's voted for the government in Parliament?Devolution for Wales and Scotland
Was caused inflation to fall, and the economy to recover, in 1978?The North Sea Oil came on stream, and there were nine oilfields in production
What were the outcomes of the Wales and Scotland devolution referendums in 1978 and 1979?20/80 against in Wales, and in Scotland the required 40% voter participation did not happen
In 1970 the Conservative Party held 36 seats in Scotland; what caused this decline?Unlike Heath, Thatcher had an anti-devolution policy
In which election did the Conservatives fail to win in single MP in Scotland or Wales?1997
At a time when the Conservative party wallowed in pessimism, what was a significant aspect of Thatcher's leadership?Her force of personality, drive, and confidence
Which deputy leader was vital in winning Thatcher support from the Heathites of the party?Willie Whitelaw
Which public relations firm helped to polish Thatcher's image?Saatchi and Saatchi
Who influenced Thatcher's small government, monetarist, ideas?Enoch Powell and Sir Keith Joseph
Where Thatcher's economic ideas fully developed, or given much attention, during the 1979 election campaign?No
Was Thatcher or Callaghan higher in the opinion polls?Callaghan
Was Thatcher specific or vague when detailing her ideas for the 1979 election?She adopted a broad-brush approach, avoiding the detailed and specific policies Heath had prepared in 1970
What did Thatcher tell a colleague in 1979?"I shall be remembered as the woman who was allowed one go - to lead the party to defeat"
Callaghan could have called an election in 1978 and teased about doing so, in hindsight should he?Yes, Thatcher had been struggling in the opinion polls
Over what issue did the Callaghan government lose a vote of confidence in March 1979?Scottish devolution
Prior to 1979, when was the last occasion in which the government lost a confidence vote?1924
Was the strikes in the 1978-1979 "Winter of Discontent" as big as those in 1974 or 1985-85?No
What caused disruption to transport during the "Winter of Discontent"?Strike by Lorry Drivers and the Train Drivers Union ASLEF
Which public sector workers went on strike resulting in mountains of uncollected rubbish, funerals being postponed, and people not being moved from ambulances into hospitals?Hospital porters, clerical staff in local councils, dustmen, and grave-diggers
What Conservative election poster became a symbol of Labour's vulnerability?"Labour isn't working"
Which traditional Labour supporters switched Conservative in 1979?Many skilled and unskilled workers
By how much did the Labour vote drop in the 1979 election?3%
How many seats did the Conservatives win in 1979?339
How many seats did Labour win in 1979?269
How many seats did the Liberals win in 1979?11
What share of the vote did the Conservatives win 1979?43.9%
What share of the vote did Labour win in 1979?36.9%
What share of the vote did the liberals win in 1979?13.8%
What which two 'wets' served as Chancellor between 1979 and 1989?Sir Geoffrey Howe and Nigel Lawson
Was Jim Prior, Minister of Employment, a wet or a dry?A Wet
When were generous pay-settlements given to unionists?1980 and 1981
When did Thatcher side with the miners in a dispute with National Coal Board, who wanted to institute pit closures?1981
In the 1979 budget what change was made to the basic rate of income tax?33% to 30%
In the 1979 budget what change was made to the top rate of income tax?83% to 60%
What was inflation and unemployment in 1980?15% and >2 Million
What helped prevent a balance of payments crisis in 1980?North Sea Oil Revenue
How did the 1981 budget apply Thatcher's monetarist principles?Control of the money-supply, increased taxes on petrol/cigarettes/alcohol, decreased government borrowing, and decreased grants to local councils
What impact did the deflationary policies of the 1981 budget have?Worsened the recession, 30% cut to steel production, and permanent closure of many industrial plants
Did Thatcher consider inflation or unemployment 'a price worth paying'?Unemployment
What areas were worst impacted by Thatcher's monetarist policies - or the 'de-industrialisation of Britain' in 1981? The Midlands, the North, Central Scotland, and South Wales
Where did major-rioting occur in 1980?The St Paul's district of Bristol
Where did major-rioting occur in 1981?Toxeth in Liverpool, Moss-Side in Manchester, Brixton and Southall in London
What was a key reason for rioting in 1980 and 1981?Anxiety about the breakdown of social cohesion
In 1981 several 'wets' including were sacked or forced into resignation, one of these was Sir Ian Gilmour, what did he accuse Thatcher of?"steering the ship of state straight on to the rocks"
What were the Conservatives polling at in April 1981?27%
In what position were some polls placing the Conservatives at in 1981?Third
What were divisions in the Labour party causing pundits to speculate about?a 'fundamental realignment of politics'
What was the name given to the leading Labour politicians who formed the SDP in January 1981?the 'Gang of Four'
What was the 'Limehouse deceleration' issued by the SDP?The formation of the Council for Social Democracy
Which four 'deserters' joined the Gang of Four?David Owen, Roy Jenkins, Shirley Williams, and Bill Rodgers
What were the SDP protesting about?The 'Bennite' Left of the Labour Party
How did SDP rebels claim credit for Labour's 1997 election victory?By 'bringing Labour back to its senses'
What was one of the hard-left groups within the Labour Party? the Militant Tendency
Which Labour Moderate was de-selected from his Lincoln seat in 1973?Dick Taverne
Which Centrist group was formed as a result of left-wing activism in the Labour Party?the Manifesto Group
Jim Callaghan resigned in November 1980, how many months was this since he left power?18 months
Which left-wing candidate beat centre-right Dennis Healey in the Labour leadership election, and what was one of his favoured policies?Michael Foot - Unilateral Nuclear Disarmament
In the bitter Labour Party Conference of September 1981, how narrowly defeated Tony Ben for Deputy-Leader of the Labour Party?Dennis Healey
The Wembley Conference of the Labour Party, dominated by hard-left hecklers, was seen as the snapping point for the 'gang of fours' defection - when was this?January 1981
Which safe Labour seat did Roy Jenkins win? Warrington
Which safe Conservative seat did Shirley Williams sensationally win?Crosby
In the early 1970's who revitalised the Liberal Party, and when did he resign due to scandal? Jeremy Thorpe, 1976
Who continued the revival of the Liberal Party?David Steel
The Liberals were good at campaigning for local issues, what was this called?'Pavement Politics'
At which by-election did the Liberals and SDP begin an informal alliance?Warrington
At the beginning of 1982 what level was unemployment approaching? 3 Million
When were the Falklands invaded April 1982
Which newspaper led the lavish approval for Falklands intervention?The Sun
Labour's 1983 manifesto contained a mishmash of left-wing policies such as unilateral disarmament, what did Labour MP Gerald Kaufman describe it as?'The longest suicide note in history'
How many seats did the Conservatives win in 1983?397
How many seats did Labour win in 1983?209
How many seats did the Liberal/SDP Alliance win in 1983?23
What share of the vote did the Conservatives win 1983?42.4%
What share of the vote did Labour win in 1983?27.6%
What share of the vote did the Liberal/SDP alliance win in 1983?25.4%

Section 2

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