Politics and the Economy (1964-1975) - Extra Notes

mcleishy's version from 2015-05-23 15:03

Section 1

Question Answer
When was the last time that Trade Unions caused the issues they caused under Heath?1926
What did inflation reach in 1974?24%
What was the size of Labour's majority following the 1964 election? 4
What had unemployment reached in 1963?800 000
What was Wilson's government criticised for overspending on; only the US spent more as a proportion of GDP?Defence
Over what time period did Britain spend more (as a proportion of GDP) on defence than the USA?1971 to 1979
When had Atlee's government been forced to devalue?1949
Between 1956 and 1964 the standard of living rose, what was the average growth rate?3%
Between 1556 and 1964 unemployment remained fairly low, and what figure did inflation never rise above?3%
There were periods of economic expansion in 1953-5 and 1958-60, when were the periods of stagnation? 1955-58, and 1960-62
In addition to the National Plan, which new department attempted to modernise Britain?The Ministry of Technology
Following the 1966 election, George Brown was moved to the foreign office, when was his National Plan abandoned? 1967
When did Wilson borrow money from the IMF? 1964 and 1967
What did Callaghan increase income tax to, in order to deflate the economy? 41.25%
What was inflation, and earning increases, in 1966 following Callaghan's successful decision to raise income tax?Inflation was 9% and Earning Increases were 11%
Over what did Chancellor James Callaghan resign, and swap positions with Roy Jenkins at the foreign office?Devaluation
How many Labour MP's voted against Wilson's proposal to join the EEC?36
How did other EEC members react to De Gaulle's second veto? They were openly hostile towards him
Jenkins' decision to raise taxes and cut government spending may have been necessary, but why could it have been damaging? They were unpopular
Wilson blamed devaluation upon the unions, but what else angered them?He felt inflation was the main threat to Britain's economy, meaning wage increases must be kept under check
From 1960 and 1970, how many strikes took place?Between 2000 and 4000 each year (Check this figure)
In 1963, 1.76 million working days were lost to strike what was this in 1970?10.98 million (Check this figure)
Wilson's Price and Incomes policy relied upon the co-operation of who?Trade Unions
What did Wilson do, following the 1966 election, which angered the unions?Pushed wage freezes and cuts in government spending, and established a Prices and Incomes board which attempted to limit prices rises, and called for wage restraint in negotiations between unions and employers
How did WIlson interpret the strikes by seaman and dockers in 1966 and 1967?An attack on Britain by a small number of radical left-wing Marxists, rather than genuine anger from Labour supporting union members
When did Barbara Castle become Minister of Labour?1966
Why could Labour not afford to alienate the Unions?They provided the bulk of Labour Party funding

Section 2

Question Answer
What was one of the main reasons Heath was chose as Conservative leader?He had attended a Grammar School and was of a similar background to Wilson
What were Heath's broad political views?He was sympathetic to unions and believed in consensus
Rather than 1970, when could Wilson have called an election?1971
Why was Wilson's 1970 election defeat particularly surprising?Labour had recorded good results in the May 1970 local elections.
Heath was a technocrat and moderniser, with what slogan did he call for more efficiency?"No more support for lame ducks"
The third EEC application was not as strongly objected by Commonwealth States as the previous two; what was a reason for this?There was to be a six-year transitional period before the Common External Tariff came into force.
While Heath conceded that EEC membership would entail duties and obligations, what did he also argues?There would be "no erosion of our essential national sovereignty"
How many Conservative MP's voted against EEC entry, and by what margin did Heath win the vote?39 Tory MP's rebelled, but they won by 301 votes to 248
What was the name given to the rise of Free-Market thinking amongst Conservatives?The "New Right"
Which political outsider, and former head of the Confederation of British Industry (CBI), was placed in charge of the Department of Trade and Industry, and expected to stop bailing out "lame duck" industries?John Davies
Which politician was responsible for getting the Industrial Relations Act through Parliament?Geoffrey Howe
Why can the Industrial Relations Act be considered a failure>The TUC called for individual unions not to register and none did making it difficult to enforce, the Industrial Relations Court was ineffective, more militant Trade Unions began to increase their demands, and strikes became evermore common?
How did Chancellor Antony Barber encourage a more free-market approach?He cut income tax, reduced government spending, and scrapped the Prices and Incomes Board
Why did Trade Unions oppose Barber's policies?Tax Cuts provided incentives for the wealthiest in society, while spending cuts hurt the poorest
In what four areas did the Labour opposition criticise the Heath government? Abandoning the Mixed Economy /// Weakening the Welfare State /// Undermining the Principle of Full Employment /// Scrapping social improvement for economic theory
For years the NUM had accepted moderate pay rises in return for job security and voluntary redundancy as uneconomical pits were closed; in 1971 they demanded a catch-up; what pay-rise were they granted and what was inflation at the time?Inflation was 7% and their Pay-Rise was 14%
When did the NUM reject an 8% pay rise, and choose to strike instead?January 1972
Who was Home Secretary under Heath?Reggie Maudling
Which coke depot was the home of flying pickets becoming symbolic of the struggle between miners and government, before closing in February 1972?Saltley near Birmingham
What pay-rise were the miners granted in 1972?21%
What policy did Heath return to in the middle of 1972?Prices and Income Policy
What had inflation reached in the middle of 1972?15%
How much money was Upper Clyde Shipbuilders given in subsidies?£34 Million
What were 4 advantages of joining the EEC? Greater access to European Markets // Could attract more foreign business // Certain regions would be entitled to development grants // British workers had rights to work in other countries
What were 5 disadvantages of joining the EEC?No longer able to buy cheap Commonwealth goods // Payments to the EEC // Common Agricultural Policy increased food prices // Restricted British fishermen // VAT introduced as condition of entry
Did Britain's EEC entry help economic growth?No
The oil crisis also caused price inflation of which goods?Plastics
What did the Balance of Payments rise to following the oil crisis?£1 Billion
What did the price of sterling fall, from and too, during the fuel crisis?$2 to $1.57 to the pound
What was the interest rate raised to during the fuel crisis?15%
To what level did unemployment soar between 1974 and 1976?1.44 Million
At what time did electricity supply finish during the three-day week?22:30
During the three-day week, a 40% cut in production activity led output to fall by what amount?5%

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