Politeness Theory

gemmalesley's version from 2017-05-09 20:01


Question Answer
What is Politeness?The expression of the speaker's intention to mitigate Face Threats carried by certain Face Threatening Acts
Politeness Theory assumes that...All competent members of society have Face and Rationality.
Politeness consists of...Efforts to 'save face'.
Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson, 1987Positive and Negative Face, Face Threatening Acts, and Politeness Strategies
What is 'Face'?A public self-image that we claim for ourselves.
Erving Goffman, 1972"Face is the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself; an image of self delineated in terms of approved social contact".
Grundy"Politeness refers to the extent to which actions match the addressee's perceptions of how they should be performed."
Positive FaceWanting to be thought of as desirable, wanting your goals etc. to be approved of
Negative FaceNot wanting: to be opposed upon, others to take advantage, our face threatened
Face Threatening ActsThese threaten the person's face by going against the wishes of each
Acts threatening the Hearer's Negative FacePressuring to do something, pressuring to go along with speaker's act
Acts threatening the Speaker's Negative FaceUnwilling promises and offers
Acts threatening the Hearer's Positive FaceNegative evaluations, indifference to beliefs and feelings
Acts threatening the Speaker's Positive FaceApologies, lack of self control
Politeness StrategiesWays of remaining polite
What are the 3 Politeness Strategies?Don't do it, do it off-record, do it on-record
Doing the act on-record1. Boldly, without redress, 2. With positive politeness redress, 3. With negative politeness redress.