PO107 (6)

amarjotsidhu's version from 2015-06-07 21:24


Question Answer
Depoliticisation refers to 'blame avoidance' and shifting of responsibility + shaping of beliefs and behaviours
Money and symoblismabout symbols o power e.g. queen; workers on trust - you believe that other people accept it for transactions; people used ut use precious things e.g. gold - rare
Past usage of valuable metals in coinstrust in money as coins had intrinsic value; BUT, people used to 'clip' the money = taking shavings of coin with valuable metals in it; also, leaders reduced the amount of metals in coins = debasing of currency = pumping more money into economy (for a certain value of money, you have to pump more money into the economy) = people have more money to spend = higher expenditure, growth and happiness = debasing of currency can be used as an economic and political tool
Problems with debasing of currencycan only be used once; leads to a loss of trust, inflation, political and economic instability as people want higher wages
Features of gold standard (18th-20th century)gold and paper were interconvertible; you could convert paper money into gold; this was fixed legally in all countries = money could be taken between countries; gold standard was an automatic system for managing the economy
How the gold standard workedprice rise in country A -> traders take gold to country b -> gold levels in country A go down -> Bank of A raises interests to prevent it running out of gold -> prices in country A come down; signalled if the economy was becoming uncompetitive
Benefits of gold standardautomatic system; useful for blame shifting (govt. could saw that economic problems were not their but BoE's fault; people didn't trust politicians e.g. hyperinflation in Germany = gold standard was good; reduced demands an expectations -> people know that system is locked and govt. can't change it, rules influence the way people behave = people will not demand higher wages or raise prices as they know that gold will leave the country and interest rates will increase
Gold standard and politicisationthe gold standard depoliticised governing;
Depoliticisation vs. politicisationpoliticsation = politicians have direct, overt control; politicians benefit from access to power and gain credit from success BUT, when things go wrong, they get blame; politicians opened up to more pressure and demands - people know that politicians are in control = can apply pressure for change
Crisis of 1970spoor state of Britain's economy (sick man in Europe); argued framed from right = state had taken on too many responsibilities; crisis directly caused by the expansion of the state = state too big; overload and ungovernability = crisis (too many people making demands making it difficult to govern e.g. unions); solution = reduce the role of the state e.g. Thatcher (New Right) - cut expenditure and increase efficiency
Discretion based systemgives politicians freedom which leads to cheating as politicians have temptations to cheat e.g. they can pump money into the economy and get the economy growing which will get them votes and back into power e.g. by lowering taxes; such discretionary policies lead to inflation and high demands
Domestic rule based systemrules take politicians out of system; domestic rule e.g. monetary targeting - if you restrict growth of money supply then people can adjust their expectations = self enforced rule OR create an independent central bank whose job it is to control inflation
External rule based systemlinked to international commitments; rules that are costly to break are less likely to be broken = more credible; less likely to break international rules which will any other countries and trading partners
Benefits of a rule based systemshifting of responsibility on rule e.g. targeting, independent central bank = better
Peter Burnham on what depoliticisation isremoval of political character of decision making; arm's length control over economy;
Flinders and Buller on tactics of depoliticisationinstitutional - responsibility given to central bank for day to day ruling (but politicians can change law); rule based system; preference shaping (blame the market, use discourse of globalisation to shift responsibility)
Colin Hay on 3 forms of depoliticisation 1) from deliberation to necessity and fate (not in your control) e.g. politicians say they have no control over it - climate change, etc. ; 2) from public to private sphere (shift responsibility to consumer by encouraging them to buy organic goods); 3) from elected officials to the market; issues are taken to less politicised arenas e.g. Quangos - govt. controls the terms on which the institutions look at things but do not run them day to day
Problems with depoliticisaitonkeeping arms-length control = does not mean things are non-political, depoliticisation is a political thing in itself, govt. still have ultimate control e.g. it can change BOE's target; persuasion is intensely political - depoliticisation = you change the way people look at things = political act + blurred diction between private/public spheres which is political; de/repoliticisation is not a dichotomy - governments arounds the world use a mix of policies, there are more than 2 options; more empirical research needed - no idea if depoliticisation works
First Thatcher governmentbased on monetarism; aim to restrict growth of money supply as it was causing high inflation in the 1970s, making UK uncompetitive but the policy failed; it failed as conservatives regulated credit markets at same time = made it difficult to restrict growth of money supply; but, they dropped the policy which lead to growth (shift back to politicised form of governing) = success = re-elected and given credit;
Thatcher and ERM1987 economic crash = conservatives given direct blame = they had to find a new form of depoliticisation; Thatcher did not want to join ERM but agreed to in 1990 but Britain was chucked out in 1992 (black Wednesday) = policy disaster HOWEVER, value of the pound was now stable, inflation lower and expectations were lower = joining had worked to advantage; backdrop at this time = economic rash which was blamed on ERM; if the govt. had a politicised form of govt. , it would have faced massive pressure
New LabourBank of England independence (1997); globalisation discourse = blame problems on globalisation
Coalition's discourse of austerity'cleaning up Labour'es mess' = way of shifting pain of austerity on Labour
Depoliticisation - good/bad?efficiency vs. erosion of democracy; better economic outcomes + govt. free to govern (fewer expectations) good; BUT, ket issues not open for deliberation
Kettell on ERM and Conservativesmembership of ERM meant that UK govt. was under less pressure over economic issues than would otherwise have been the case -> external constraints of ERM regime = credible justification device for resisting calls for economic policy taxation; main interest groups (TUC and CBI) remained committed to ERM and anti inflation; govt. ratings on economic management improved significantly over its pre-ERM measures despite a backdrop of recession; if UK had been outside the ERM then state officials would have been seen as having greater control for downturn = greater pressure
Colin Hay on globalisation and depoliticsationglobalisation exerts a powerful influence on the policy making autonomy and capacity for democratic deliberation at national level; if policy makers believe that their autonomy is diminished in this era and that their policies must follow certain aims e.g. competitiveness, then there is a decrease in capacity for democratic political deliberation = depoliticisation; consequences = citizens also become pessimistic about the power of politicians = reduction in political participation; democratic accountability could crumble
Flinders and Bullerdepoliticisation and politicisation may take place simultaneously e.g. transfer of powers to EU institutions from member states -> could be seen
Burnham on New Labour and globalisationrecognising the governments in the past have been unable to solve the deep rooted problems of the British economy, New Labour used the language of 'constraints' to lower expectation and improve its credit rating

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