PO107 (4)

amarjotsidhu's version from 2015-06-08 14:28


Question Answer
Edmund Burke's reflectionsin order to preserve our liberties, we must do as our ancestors have done; traditions followed due to the 'result of profound reflection'; constitutional policy = we receive, hold and transmit government and privileges (privilege given to us to be preserved and give to future generations); equal rights does not mean equal entitlement to equal things e.g. equal things; he laments the changing of society after the French Revolution; 'society is indeed a contract'' state = a partnership between living, dead and those to be born
Conservativsm and psychologybased on recognition of human beings' imperfection which in turn places limits to political activity
Oakeshott on theory and practicepractical skill of politics requires skills which cannot be given by abstract perfectionist theory
Criticisms of inequality in conservatismsome, like Marx, criticise conservative pessimism on the grounds that it permits unfair arrangements benefiting a privileged few
Paternalistic conservatism and one nation toryismidea of protecting the weakest reflected by Disraeli's one nation conservatism in which the nation would be united by a benevolent hierarchy catering for interests of all = interventionist; those higher up in social ladder have a duty to help those at bottom; peaked in 50s and 60s -> keynesian social democracy, enlarged welfare provision
One nation conservatism vs. liberal conservatismfree markets, appealing to emerging middle classes = liberal conservatism (opposite of one nation)
Electoral success of conservatives in 19th/20th century in Europe and USAdown to adaptability of conservative ideology; broad varied role of state offered; usage of religion, nationalism, etc. to support cause
Vincent on contradiction of conservatism as a theoryit is a theory which rejects theory
Conservatism justification of governmentgovt. needed because of the imperfection of human nature
Conservatism and change in previous decadesmuch of really radical social and economic change in recent times in many industrialised societies has been down to liberal conservatism e.g. Britain and America
Conservative view of human nature vs. hobbesconservatism echoes the voice of hobbes - similarly pessimistic view of human nature; idea of sacrificing liberty for social order; selfish, limited, security seeking creatures + moral corruption = deterrant required to prevent people from committing crime = emphasis on law and order
Conservatism on authority in societyauthority develops naturally in society (Does not rise out of contracts - as liberal view argues)
Conservatism and propertybelief in thrift and cautious management of money; ability to accumulate and keep wealth = important economic incentive (incentives keep society in order); property ownership promotes social values e.g. property must be safeguarded from disorder = property owners have a stake in society
Nozick's conservatismrejects welfare and redistribution in 'Anarchy, state and utopia'
Conservatism as a counter globalising forcerise of far right anti immigration parties in Europe; backward looking, culturally and ethnically pure e.g. Front National (France); strength of such conservative nationalist lies behind their ability to prosper in conditions of fear, insecurity and social dislocation = people can express their worries about globalisation
Freud on psychological conservatismjust as as we are all biologically conservative (human organism tries to preserve itself and avoid disruption, Freud argued that we are also psychologically conservative
Conservative hostility to utopianism - HayekHayek saw socialist planning as road to totalitarianism
Imperialism and Conservatism failure of imperialist powers to impose their own political institutions on african countries + new boundaries established in Africa by Europeans which have been a constant source of conflict = justifies conservative recommendation that you should build sensitively on existing social phenomena
Original sin and Conservatismflawed human nature linked to idea of original sin = strong advocation of law and order
Family and Conservatismfamily = key feature; you learn values and discipline from family and from there you will transfer those values to state = family should be promoted


Question Answer
Liberalism and its dominancedominant ideology in the world; it is so deeply engrained in us, it appears to be un unquestionable fact of life = no longer seems to be an ideology = become like Lukes' 3rd face of power where ideology becomes natural
Liberalism and 'end of ideology'fukuyama argued that the liberal idea was victorious ideology with no other idea being able to challenge
Limitations to liberal hegemonycontradictions of capitalism - capitalism will eventually end and revolution will occur = liberalism that it fosters will end + capitalism breeds inequality and relative poverty which undermines liberalism; rival conceptions e.g. Islam = fastest growing religion in the world; failure of 'liberal' parties; differing perceptions of liberalism e.g. European liberalism not seen as good in US
What is liberalism? key featuresemphasis on individual; private space; limits on public power; minimal govt.; equality
Key feature: emphasis on individualliberty = key; human being = rational, self interested utility maximiser
key feature: private spaceindividuals should have private space to enable them to pursue the good life
key feature: limits of public powerminimal govt. , constitutional measures to prevent tyranny e.g. US; minimalist state possible
key feature: minimal governmentprinciple roles of state = security (from external states), rule of law (applies equally and universally. it is needed to ensure equal rights e.g. freedom of belief and speech), sound money (free market system, govt. intervention will lead to problems with price mechanism and inefficiency, role of govt. = ensure free market)
key feature: equality of opportunitybut not equality of outcomes; everybody is of equal worth but outcomes can be unequal
Hobbesto maintain order, a strong state is needed to guarantee social order; hobbes proposes an authoritarian regime in leviathan; legitimacy derived from social contract which people commit to as social order is ensured and people freedoms are limited
Lockerelationship with ruler and those ruled; bottom up conception of power and authority; ruled have a right to overthrow rulers; social contract; principle job of ruler is to maintain order; in contract to conservative views on legitimacy (derived from tradition) vs. liberalism = democracy and consent
Adam Smithfree marketeer; individuals should pursue their own self interest
John Stuart Millsupporter of representative democracy; only legitimate for state to interfere in private sphere in order to prevent people from harming others
What does 'liberty' mean?negative liberty or positive liberty
Negative libertyabsence of constraints and restrictions on your freedom = freedom from being told what to do
Hebert Smith and negative libertyhe promoted it; he advocated idea of survival of fittest and social darwinism
Problems with negative libertymodern industrialised society, extension of franchise, free market imperfections,
Problem with negative liberty: modern industrialised societyas industrialisation occurred, large corporations emerged = hierarchical and dominated by managerialism = idea of individual entrepreneur limited = individual liberty threatened by interests of collective
Problem with negative liberty: extension of franchisepeople demand things e.g. rights, which imposes pressure on state and may force contradictions e.g. regulation of free market
Problem with negative liberty: free market imperfectionsinequailty; liberalism did not take into account factors outside individuals agents e.g. those who are poor were seen as being deservedly poor = idea of deserving and undeserving -> proved wrong by Booth and Rowntree
Charles Booth and Seebohm Rowntree (20th century)1/3 of unemployment in York and London structural = people unemployed not because they were feckless but because jobs were not available; poor living and health standard e.g. poverty = pressure on state to react + Boer War (army recruits malnourished + threat to security of empire
Positive liberty (social liberalism)individual's capacity to shape the course of their destiny and act autonomously = freedom to... ; greater role of state e.g. how free are you if you don't have access to education, etc. = provision of public services
Keynes and positive libertyno point at which free markets balance; this can lead to high unemployment which undermines the social conditions you need for free market e.g. radicalisation of workers; keynesianism = state intervention in markets, demand management e.g. demand regulation policies
Karl Polanyi on tensions between collectivism and individualismtension ; start off with liberty and free market; this causes social problems which undermines support for free market = movements encourage state intervention in markets = state becomes open to more pressures and gets more involved = economy goes wrong
Neoliberalism key principlesemerged after 1970s crisis; core principles = enforcing rule of the market (liberate private enterprise, free up capital and expand market principles into new areas such as health to increase efficiency and choice); reduce public spending (roll back state and get rid of dependency culture; deregulation (bring back regulations that define parameters of free market = 're regulation') ; privatisation = open up inefficient industries to private enterprise; indivudal responsibility
Liberalism and tolerancewhat if groups in society are hostile to liberalism? Are there limits to freedom e.g. paris shootings

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