Pleural Effusion

benryan95's version from 2016-01-12 18:40


Question Answer
What is meant by a pleural effusion?Fluid in the pleural space
What is meant by transudate?Protein concentration <25g/L
What is meant by exudate?Protein concentration >35g/L
What is blood in the pleural space called?Haemothorax
What is pus in the pleural space called?empyema
What is lymph with fat (chyle) in the pleural space called?chylothorax
What is both blood and air in the pleural space called?haemopneumothorax
What are causes of transudates?Increased venous pressure, hypoproteinaemia, hypothyoidism and Meig's syndrome
What are the causes of exudates?Increased leakiness of pleural capillaries, secondary to infection, inflammation or malignancy
What are 3 presentations of pleural effusions?asymptomatic, dyspnoea or pleuritic chest pain
What are 3 signs of pleural effusion?Decreased expansion, stony dull percussion, diminished breath sounds on the affected side - aloso tracheal deviation, and decreased vocal resonance
What is seen on CXR in pleural effusionblunt costophrenic angles, water-dense shadows with concave upper borders (if flat upper border, implied pneumothorax) perhaps tracheal deviation away from
What is used for identifying presence of pleural fluid and in guiding diagnostic or therapeutic aspiration?Ultrasound
What 4 tests can be done in pleural effusionCXR, ultrasound, diagnostic aspiration, pleural biopsy

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