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Piano Theory Terms

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eziromem's version from 2017-04-04 17:19

Need to Work On

TERMS I NEED TO WORK ON
Question Answer
lentementslowly
vitefast
morendodying, fading away
allargandobroadening, becoming slower
largamentebroadly
sotto vocesoft, subdued, under the breath
stringendopressing, becoming faster
mestosad, mournful
calandobecoming slower and softer
vivolively
dolentesad
ritenutosuddenly slower, held back
pesanteweighty, with emphasis
memorize

Scales

MODAL SCALES IN C MAJOR
Question Answer
IonianTonic (C)
DorianSupertonic (D)
PhrygianMediant (E)
LydianSubdominant (F)
MixolydianDominant (G)
AeolianSubmediant (A)
LocrianLeading Tone (B)
memorize

 

LEVEL 1-7 SCALES
Question Answer
MajorMajor Scale
Natural MinorMinor Scale
Harmonic MinorMinor Scale with raised seventh
Melodic MinorMinor Scale with raised sixth and seventh ascending, natural minor descending
ChromaticHalf steps
Whole-toneWhole tones
OctatonicAlternating Half and Whole tones
Major PentatonicMajor Scale with scale degrees 4 and 7 removed
Minor PentatonicMinor Scale with scale degrees 2 and 6 removed
BluesMinor Pentatonic Scale with an added half step between 4 and 5
memorize

Level 8

FRENCH TERMS
Question Answer
cédezyield; hold the tempo back
légerlight, lightly
lentementslowly
modéréat a moderate tempo
movementtempo, motion
vitefast
memorize

 

GERMAN TERMS
Question Answer
bewegtmoving
langsamslow, slowly
mässigmoderate, moderately
mit Ausdruckwith expression
schnellfast
sehrvery
memorize

 

TEMPO TERMS
Question Answer
allargandobroadening, becoming slower
largamentebroadly
l'istesso tempothe same tempo
ritenutosuddenly slower, held back
stringendopressing, becoming faster
memorize

 

PERFORMING INSTRUCTIONS
Question Answer
attacaproceed without a break
calandobecoming slower and softer
comodoat a comfortable, easy tempo
con sordinowith mute
pizzicatoon a bowed string instrument, pluck the string instead of bowing
arcoon a bowed string instrument, resume bowing after a pizzicato passage
memorize

Level 7

TERMS RELATED TO TEMPO; TERMS RELATED TO MUSICAL STRUCTURE, FORM, AND PERFORMING INSTRUCTIONS
Question Answer
vivolively
sotto vocesoft, subdued, under the breath
tacetbe silent
tuttia passage for the ensemble
voltatime (for example, prima volta: first time; seconda volta: second time)
volti subito, v.s.turn the page quickly
memorize

 

TERMS RELATED TO MUSICAL CHARACTER AND STYLE
Question Answer
agitatoagitated
dolentesad
giocosohumorous, jocose
grandiosogrand, grandiose
martellatostrongly accented, hammered
mestosad, mournful
memorize

 

TERMS RELATED TO MUSICAL CHARACTER AND STYLE (CONTINUED)
Question Answer
morendodying, fading away
pesanteweighty, with emphasis
quindicesima alta, 15 matwo octaves higher
risolutoresolute
scherzandoplayful
semplicesimple
sonoresonorous (with full tone)
sostenutosustained
memorize

Levels 6

TERMS RELATED TO TEMPO; TERMS RELATED TO DYNAMICS; TERMS RELATED TO MUSICAL STRUCTURE AND FORM
Question Answer
graveslow and solemn
fortepiano, fploud, then suddenly soft
sforzando, sf, sfzsudden strong accent of a single note or chord
locoreturn to the normal register
primo, primafirst; the upper part of a duet
secondo, secondasecond; second or lower part of a duet
similecontinue in the same manner as has just been indicated
memorize

 

TERMS RELATED TO MUSICAL CHARACTER AND STYLE
Question Answer
ad libitum, ad lib.at the liberty of the performer
animatolively, animated
con briowith vigor, spirit
con espressionewith expression
con fuocowith fire
con graziawith grace
con motowith motion
meno mossoless movement, slower
più mossomore movement (quicker)
poco a pocolittle by little
tre cordethree strings; release the left pedal (on the piano)
una cordaone string; depress the left pedal (on the piano)
memorize

 

WORDS THAT MODIFY TERMS AND LINK TERMS TOGETHER
Question Answer
alla, all'in the manner of
ben, benewell (for example, ben marcato: well marked)
col, coll' colla, collewith (for example, coll'ottava: with an added octave)
conwith
e, edand
mabut (for example, ma non troppo: but not too much)
menoless
nonnot
piùmore
quasialmost, as if
semprealways, continuously
senzawithout
subitosuddenly
troppotoo much
memorize

Levels 1-5

Question Answer
accelerando, accel.becoming quicker
accenta stressed note
adagioslow
allegrettofairly fast, a little slower than allegro
allegrofast
andantemoderately slow; at a walking pace
andantinoa little faster than andante
a temporeturn to the original tempo
cantabilein a singing style
crescendo, cresc.becoming louder
memorize

 

Question Answer
da capo, D.C.from the beginning
dal segno, D.S.from the sign
D.C. al Finerepeat from the beginning and end at Fine
decrescendo, decresc.becoming softer
diminuendo, dim.becoming softer
dolcesweet, gentle
espressivo, espress.expressive, with expression
finethe end
forte, floud
fortissimovery loud
memorize

 

Question Answer
graziosograceful
larghettofairly slow, but not as slow as largo
largovery slow
legatosmooth
leggeriolight, nimble, quick
lentoslow
memorize

 

Question Answer
maestosomajestic
mano destra, m.d.right hand
mano sinistra, m.s.left hand
marcatomarked or stressed
mezzo forte, mfmoderately loud
mezzo piano, mpmoderately soft
moderatoat a moderate tempo
moltomuch, very
memorize

 

Question Answer
ottava, 8vathe interval of an octave
pedale, ped.pedal
pianissimo, ppvery soft
piano, psoft
pocolittle
prestissimoas fast as possible
prestovery fast
rallentando, rall.slowing down
ritardando, rit.slowing down gradually
rubatowith some freedom of tempo to enhance musical expression
memorize

 

Question Answer
spiritosospirited
staccatodetached
tempospeed at which music is performed
Tempo primo (Tempo I)return to the original tempo
tranquilloquiet, tranquil
vivacelively, brisk
memorize

LEVEL 1-8

SIGNS (SEE THEORY BOOKS)
Question Answer
accenta stressed note; See Theory Books
breath marktake a breath, and/or a slight pause or lift; See Theory Books
common timea symbol for 4/4; See Theory Books
crescendobecoming louder; See Theory Books
dal segno, D.S..from the sign; See Theory Books
decrescendo, diminuendobecoming softer; See Theory Books
memorize

 

Question Answer
double bar lineindicates the end of a piece; See Theory Books
down bowon a bowed string instrument, play the note while drawing the bow downward; See Theory Books
fermata (pause)hold the note or rest longer than its written value; See Theory Books
glissando, gliss.continuous slide upward or downward between two or more pitches; See Theory Books
ottava, 8vaplay one octave above/below written pitch; See Theory Books
pedal markinguse the damper pedal (on the piano); See Theory Books
repeat signrepeat the music within the two signs, or between the sign and the beginning of the piece
memorize

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