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Piaget's Cognitive Developmental Theory

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k18v2's version from 2017-11-30 00:04

Section

Question Answer
Cognitionthinking skills
schemasa person's "picture of the world": ideas of what is normal
assimilationinterpreting a new experience within the context of one's existing schemas
accommodationinterpreting a new experience by adapting or changing existing schemas
object permanencethe awareness that things continue to exist even when they cannot be seen
centrationfocus on one aspect and ignore all other aspects
egocentrismself-centered; Inability to take another's perspective/ point of view other than their own
Conservationunderstanding the certain properties remain constant despite changes in their form: same amount, more taller, more bigger, more wider, number, length, substance
Irreversibilitycan't mentally undo something 3+1=4 1+3=4
Sensorimotorbirth-age 2
preoperational2-7
concrete
memorize

Developmental Psychology Exam Review

Question Answer
Define Attachmentis a strong, long-lasting emotional connection
Which mother did the baby run to when frightened in Harry Harlow's attachment study?the cloth mother
memorize

Mary Ainsworth's Attachment Study

Question Answer
Secure Attachmentrelationship of trust and confidence
Insecure-Avoidant Attachmentinfants or young children seem somewhat indifferent toward their caregivers and may even avoid their caregivers
Insecure-Ambivalent Attachmentinfants are clingy and stay close to caregiver rather than exploring environment
Disorganized Attachmentinfants have no consisten way to coping with the stress of the "strange situation" Baby seems confused when the mother leaves and returns
memorize

Erik Erikson's Psychological Theory

Question Answer
Trust vs. Mistrustfaith in the environment and future events VS. suspicion, fear of future events
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubta sense of self-control and adequacy VS. feelings of shame and self-doubt
Initiative vs. Guiltability to be a "self-starter," to initiate one's own acitivities VS. a sense of guilt and inadequacy to be on one's own
Industry vs. Inferiorityability to learn how things work, to understand and organize VS. a sense of inferiority at understanding and organizing
Identity vs. Role Confusionseeing oneself as a unique and integrated person VS. confusion over who and what one really is
Intimacy vs. Isolationability to make commitments to others, to love VS. inability to form affectionate relationship
Generativity vs. Stagnigationconcern for family and society in general VS. concern for only self- one's own well being and prosperity
Ego Integrity vs. Despaira sense of integrity and fulfillment; willingness to face death VS. dissatisfaction with life; despair over prospect of death
memorize

Jean Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory

Question Answer
Stage One- Sensormotor Intelligenceinfo is gained throughh the senses and motor actions; child percieves/manipulates but does not reason; symbols become internalized through landscape development; Object Permanence is aquired
Object Permanencethe awareness that things continue to exist even when they cannot be sensed
Stage Two- Preoperational IntelligenceCentration, Egocentrism, Static Reasoning, Lack of Conservation, Irreversibility
Centrationtendancy to focus, or center, on only one aspect of a situation, usually a perceptual aspect, and ignore other relevant aspects of the situation
Egocentrsiminability to take another person's perspective or POV; child inability to understand that sybols can represent other objects
Static Reasoning
Lack of Conservationholds that two equal quanitites remain equal even if the appearance of one is changed, as long as nothing is added or subtracted
Irreversibilitychild cannot mentally reverse a sequence of events or logical operations back to the starting point
Stage Three- Concrete Operational IntelligenceConservation, Reversibility, Classification
Conservationan understanding that certain properties remain constant despite changes in their form
Reversibilitymentally reverse a sequence of events or logical operations back to the starting point
Classification
Stage Four- Formal Operational IntelligenceHypothetical, Inductive, Deductive thinking
memorize

Lawrence Kohlberg's Moral Reasoning Theory

Question Answer
Level OnePreconventional Moral Reasoning
Level TwoConventional Moral Reasoning
Level ThreePostconventional Moral Reasoning
memorize

 

Question Answer
Stage Oneobedience and punishment; children see rules as fixed and absolute
Stage TwoNaively egotistical; children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs
Stage Three"good boy-girl" orientation
Stage FourLaw and Social Order; people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgements following the rules, doing one's duty, and respecting authority
Stage FiveLegalistic Social Contract; differing values, opinions and beliefs of other people
Stage SixUniversal Ethical Principals; people follow internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules
memorize

Ages

Question Answer
Trust vs Mistrustbirth-1 year old
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt1-2 years old
Initiative vs. Guilt3-5 years old
Industry vs. Inferiority5-12 years old
Identity vs. Role Confusion13-18
Intimacy vs. Isolation18-40
Generativity vs. Stagnigation40-60
Ego Integrity vs. Despair60 and up
memorize

 

Question Answer
Sensorimotor Intelligencebirth - 2 years old
Preoperational Intelligence2-7 years old
Concrete Operational Intelligence7-2 years old
Formal Operational Intelligence12-18 years old
memorize

 

Question Answer
Preconventional Moral Reasoning0-9 years old
Conventional10-15 years old
Postconventional16+ years old
memorize

Name that Attachment Relationship! A baby in this group might say...

Question Answer
A baby in this group might say "I missed you terribly, but now that you're back, I'm okaySecure
A baby in this group might say "You left me again. I always have to take care of myself."Insecure/Avoidant
"Why do you do this? I get so angry when you're like this"Resistant
"What's going on here? I want you to be here, but you left and now you're back. I don't know whether to laugh or cry."Disorganized
memorize

All

Question Answer
Cognitionthinking skills
schemasa person's "picture of the world": ideas of what is normal
assimilationinterpreting a new experience within the context of one's existing schemas
accommodationinterpreting a new experience by adapting or changing existing schemas
object permanencethe awareness that things continue to exist even when they cannot be seen
centrationfocus on one aspect and ignore all other aspects
egocentrismself-centered; Inability to take another's perspective/ point of view other than their own
Conservationunderstanding the certain properties remain constant despite changes in their form: same amount, more taller, more bigger, more wider, number, length, substance
Irreversibilitycan't mentally undo something 3+1=4 1+3=4
Sensorimotorbirth-age 2
preoperational2-7
concrete
Define Attachmentis a strong, long-lasting emotional connection
Which mother did the baby run to when frightened in Harry Harlow's attachment study?the cloth mother
Secure Attachmentrelationship of trust and confidence
Insecure-Avoidant Attachmentinfants or young children seem somewhat indifferent toward their caregivers and may even avoid their caregivers
Insecure-Ambivalent Attachmentinfants are clingy and stay close to caregiver rather than exploring environment
Disorganized Attachmentinfants have no consisten way to coping with the stress of the "strange situation" Baby seems confused when the mother leaves and returns
Trust vs. Mistrustfaith in the environment and future events VS. suspicion, fear of future events
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubta sense of self-control and adequacy VS. feelings of shame and self-doubt
Initiative vs. Guiltability to be a "self-starter," to initiate one's own acitivities VS. a sense of guilt and inadequacy to be on one's own
Industry vs. Inferiorityability to learn how things work, to understand and organize VS. a sense of inferiority at understanding and organizing
Identity vs. Role Confusionseeing oneself as a unique and integrated person VS. confusion over who and what one really is
Intimacy vs. Isolationability to make commitments to others, to love VS. inability to form affectionate relationship
Generativity vs. Stagnigationconcern for family and society in general VS. concern for only self- one's own well being and prosperity
Ego Integrity vs. Despaira sense of integrity and fulfillment; willingness to face death VS. dissatisfaction with life; despair over prospect of death
Stage One- Sensormotor Intelligenceinfo is gained throughh the senses and motor actions; child percieves/manipulates but does not reason; symbols become internalized through landscape development; Object Permanence is aquired
Object Permanencethe awareness that things continue to exist even when they cannot be sensed
Stage Two- Preoperational IntelligenceCentration, Egocentrism, Static Reasoning, Lack of Conservation, Irreversibility
Centrationtendancy to focus, or center, on only one aspect of a situation, usually a perceptual aspect, and ignore other relevant aspects of the situation
Egocentrsiminability to take another person's perspective or POV; child inability to understand that sybols can represent other objects
Static Reasoning
Lack of Conservationholds that two equal quanitites remain equal even if the appearance of one is changed, as long as nothing is added or subtracted
Irreversibilitychild cannot mentally reverse a sequence of events or logical operations back to the starting point
Stage Three- Concrete Operational IntelligenceConservation, Reversibility, Classification
Conservationan understanding that certain properties remain constant despite changes in their form
Reversibilitymentally reverse a sequence of events or logical operations back to the starting point
Classification
Stage Four- Formal Operational IntelligenceHypothetical, Inductive, Deductive thinking
Level OnePreconventional Moral Reasoning
Level TwoConventional Moral Reasoning
Level ThreePostconventional Moral Reasoning
Stage Oneobedience and punishment; children see rules as fixed and absolute
Stage TwoNaively egotistical; children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs
Stage Three"good boy-girl" orientation
Stage FourLaw and Social Order; people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgements following the rules, doing one's duty, and respecting authority
Stage FiveLegalistic Social Contract; differing values, opinions and beliefs of other people
Stage SixUniversal Ethical Principals; people follow internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules
Trust vs Mistrustbirth-1 year old
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt1-2 years old
Initiative vs. Guilt3-5 years old
Industry vs. Inferiority5-12 years old
Identity vs. Role Confusion13-18
Intimacy vs. Isolation18-40
Generativity vs. Stagnigation40-60
Ego Integrity vs. Despair60 and up
Sensorimotor Intelligencebirth - 2 years old
Preoperational Intelligence2-7 years old
Concrete Operational Intelligence7-2 years old
Formal Operational Intelligence12-18 years old
Preconventional Moral Reasoning0-9 years old
Conventional10-15 years old
Postconventional16+ years old
A baby in this group might say "I missed you terribly, but now that you're back, I'm okaySecure
A baby in this group might say "You left me again. I always have to take care of myself."Insecure/Avoidant
"Why do you do this? I get so angry when you're like this"Resistant
"What's going on here? I want you to be here, but you left and now you're back. I don't know whether to laugh or cry."Disorganized
memorize