Physiology Exam 2 (part b)

juliaterese's version from 2015-04-13 18:40

Section 21

Question Answer
two types of synapseselectrical, chemical
synapses that can be bidirectionalelectrical
what makes up an electrical synapsegap junctions
describe an electrical synapseions and second messengers flow directly from one cell to another
benefit of an electrical synapsesynchronization of electrical activity (domino effect)
what chemical synapses are made ofsynaptic cleft
synapses that are unidirectionalchemical

Section 22

Question Answer
purpose of an action potentialdepolarize the end of the axon to open calcium channels
why calcium rushes out of the cell when its channels openthere is a huge concentration gradient
ion on which synaptic transmission is dependentcalcium
what calcium does in the presynaptic terminaltriggers the release of neurotransmitters (exocytosis)
is there more calcium inside or outside the cell?outside
what neurotransmitter binds to on post-synaptic cellneurotransmitter receptors
what happens to free neurotransmitters that don't bind receptors in the post-synaptic cell?degraded by enzymes, taken back up by cell (endocytosis), diffuses away from synaptic cleft
3 ways to turn off synaptic transmissionremove neurotransmitter from synaptic cleft, exhaust neurotransmitter supply, remove calcium from presynaptic terminal
protein that pumps calcium out of the presynaptic terminal to inactivate transmissionPM Calcium ATPase
where in the cell can you find calcium?mitochondria, ER
ways to remove calcium from the presynaptic terminalpump into the ER or mitochondria, pump out of the cell, all require ATP

Section 23

Question Answer
postsynaptic response mediated by fast channel-linked receptorsionotropic
postsynaptic response mediated by G-protein coupled receptorsmetabotropic
which type of postsynaptic response is slow?metabotropic
which type of postsynaptic response is fast?ionotropic
what postsynaptic responses take the form ofpostsynaptic potential (PSP) (change in membrane potential)
steps in ionotropic responseneutransmitter binds to the channel and the channel opens to permit ionic movement
steps of metabotropic responseneurotransmitter binds receptor --> activates G protein --> G protein open or closes the channel

Section 24

Question Answer
3 qualities of PSP in an excitatory synapseEPSP, depolarizing, brings membrane potential closer to threshold
is a postsynaptic AP more or less probable with a EPSP?more
PSP in an inhibitory synapseIPSP, brings membrane potential away from threshhold
is a post synaptic AP more or less probable with an IPSP?less
ion more permeable in an EPSPsodium
ion more permeable in an IPSPpotassium

Section 25

Question Answer
receptors found on skeletal muscleacetylcholine receptors (nicotinic)
neurotransmitter that causes muscles to contractAChe
receptors found in the heartacetylcholine (muscarinic)
neurotransmitter that causes heart to relaxAChe
ion that binds to a nicotinic AChe receptorsodium (EPSP)
ion that binds to muscarinic AChe receptorpotassium (IPSP)
blocks nicotinic receptors and causes skeletal muscle paralysiscurare
blocks muscarinic receptors and used when someone is having a heart attack in conjunction with epiatropine

Section 26

Question Answer
3 catacholaminesdopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine
where dopamine is releasedCNS
where norepinephrine is releasedCNS, PNS
where epinephrine is releasedCNS, adrenal medulla
type of receptors catecholamines usually bindmetabotropic
bind andrenergic receptorsnorepinephrine, epinephrine
where seratonin is releasedCNS
what seratonin controlssleep, emotions
where histamine is releasedCNS, non-neuronal mast cells during an allergic reaction
amino acid neurotransmittersglutamate, aspartate, GABA, Glycine
amino acid neurotransmitters that open chloride channels (make inside of cell more negative)glycine, GABA
most common AA transmitter for EPSPglutamate
inhibatory amino acid neurotransmittersGABA, glycine
type of receptor for glutamatemetabotropic or ionotropic
excitatory ionotropic glutamate receptorsAMPA, Kainate, NMDA
glutamate receptors that are sodium channelsAMPA, Kainate
glutamate receptors that are calcium channelsNMDA

Section 27

Question Answer
Ionotropic GABA receptorsGABAa, GABAc
describe ionotropic GABA receptorsinhibitory, chloride channels
metabotrpic GABA receptorsGABAb
describe glycine receptorsionotropic, chloride channels
what glycine mediatesinhibition in PNS

Section 27

Question Answer
mechanism responsible for learning and memory formationlong-term potentiation
process by which cells become more efficient at communication via synaptic transmissionlong term potentiation
what LTP results inlong term structural and electrical changes to synapse
2 classifications of long-term memorynondeclarative/implicit, declarative/explicit
memory of simple skills and how to do thingsnon declarative
memory of things that can be verbalizeddeclarative
memory of factssemantic
memory of eventsepisodic
type of memory usually compromised in people with amnesia

Section 28

Question Answer
area of brain involved in memory if there is an emotional componentamygdala
hormone that impairs memory formation and retrievalcortisol
builds up during the day and leads to drowsinessadenosine
chemical that blocks adenosine receptorscaffeine
what happens when adenosine levels drop during sleepATP is being made
possible functions of sleepcatch-up, repair damage from toxic free radicals, long-term structural and chemical adjustments for learning and memory
acts as the lymphatic system of the brainCSF
what happened in a sleep study where they interrupted REM sleep every nightprediabetes, elevated BP, heart disease risk
2 types of sleepslow wave, REM (paradoxical)

Section 29

Question Answer
collected to study brain waves by external electrodes on the scalpEEG (electroencephalogram)
what EEG showscollective postsynaptic potential activity in cortex (EPSP + IPSP)
how most knowledge about the brain and language is derivedstudying people with aphasias
two forebrain areas important to languageBroca's, Wenicke's
aphasia with poor articulated speech but no impairment in understandingBroca's
what Broca's area controlsmotor aspects of speech
aphasia where there is rapid speech with no meaningWernicke's
part of brain that controls understanding of wordsWernicke's
part of the brain where word comprehension originatesWernicke's
part of brain that sends information to the motor cortex for speechBroca's

Section 30

Question Answer
where mirror neurons are foundfrontal and parietal lobes
what mirror neurons are connected toemotion centers of the brain
when mirror neurons are activatedwhen we observe expressions in others and mimic them ourselves
what mirror neurons may be involved in learningsocial skills and language
disease mirror neurons have been implicated inautism