Physiology - Block 2 - Part 2

davidwurbel7's version from 2015-07-06 06:02

Female Reproductive Physiology

Question Answer
Cells of ovaries that secrete TestosteroneThica Cells
Aromatase enzyme present in these cells, converts Testosterone to 17β- EstradiolGranulosa Cells
Converts Testosterone to 17β- EstradiolAromastase
Hormone that activates conversion of testosterone to 17β- estradiolFSH
Hormone that activates conversion of cholesterol to pregnenoloneLH
At lower levels during the beginning of the follicular phase/proliferative phase, estrogen has this type of feedback on the hypothalamic-anterior pituitaryNegative Feedback
At high level during the end of the follicular phase/proliferative phase, estrogen has this type of feedback on the hypothalamic-anterior pituitaryPositive Feedback
Estrogen produced in the adipose tissueEstrone
Estrogen produced in the placentaEstriol
Estrogen produced in the ovaries17β- Estradiol
This phase of the menstrual cycle is fixed at 14 daysLuteal Phase
Thica cells and granulosa cells transform into these cells which produce mostly progesterone and some estrogen after ovulationLuteal Cells
Thica cells and granulosa cells transform into luteal cells after thisOvulation
Once Graafian follicle ruptures, it is devoid of oocyte, becomes filled with blood and is calledCorpus Hemorrhagicum
Corpus luteum has a life span of12 Days
This has a life span of 12 days in the ovaryCorpus Luteum
This hormone decreases excitability of myometrium & prevents contractions during pregnancy by decreasing uterine response to OxytocinProgesterone
During follicular phase, this hormone stimulates production of copious quantity of thin, watery, alkaline stringy mucusEstrogen
During Secretory phase, this hormone causes the cervical mucus to become scanty, thick, sealing off the uterus from further entry of sperm or bacteriaProgesterone
Failure to have menstrual cyclePrimary Amenorrhea
Cessation of cycles in a woman with previously normal periodsSecondary Amenorrhea
Painful menstruationDysmenorrhea
Absence of menstruationAmenorrhea
Increased menstrual bleedingMenorrhagia
Menstrual cycle during which no ovulation occurs. In most girls, occurs in the cycles during first 1-2 years after menarcheAnovulatory Cycle
No corpus luteum is formed and the effects of progesterone on the endometrium are absentAnovulatory Cycle
The permanent cessation of menstruation in an elderly womanMenopause
Enzymes present in head of spermatozoa help to adhere to oocyteHyaluronidase & Acrosin
Takes place on day 5-7 after fertilizationImplantation
Cells of syncytiotrophoblast begin to secrete a hormone approximately 8 days after ovulationHuman Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
Levels of this hormone peaks at 8-10 weeks of pregnancyHuman Chorionic Gonadotropin
Resembles human growth hormone & is secreted in proportion to the size of placentaHuman Placental Lactogen (HPL) (Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin (HCS))
Plasma level of this an index of placental well-beingHuman Placental Lactogen (HPL) (Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin (HCS))
Attributed to be the factor responsible for causing gestational diabetesHuman Placental Lactogen (HPL) (Human Chorionic Somatomammotropin (HCS))
A precursor for estrogen is synthesized from placenta and diffuses into fetal circulationPregnenolone
Pregnenolone is converted to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) hereFetal Adrenal Gland
DHEA is converted into 16-Hydroxy DHEA hereFetal Liver
16-Hydroxy DHEA is converted to estriol herePlacenta
Estimation of plasma level of this in the mother is a good index of the fetal well beingPlasma Estriol
Hormone responsible for initiation of milk production by breastProlactin
Hormone responsible for growth of duct system and deposition of adipose tissue in the breastEstrogen
Hormone responsible for development of lobulesProgesterone
Hormone responsible for milk ejectionOxytocin

Cardiovascular Physiology

Question Answer
25/0 mmHgRight Ventricle
25/8 mmHgPulmonary Artery
15 mmHgMean Pulmonary Artery
7-9 mmHgPulmonary Capillary
5 mmHgPulmonary Venous
5 - 10 mmHgLeft Atrium
Pressure gradient 15 – 5= 10 mmHgPulmonary Circulation Pressure Gradient
120/0 mmHgLeft Ventricle
120/80 mmHgAorta
93 mmHgMean arterial blood pressure (MAP)
30 mmHgSkeletal Capillary
50 mmHgRenal Glomerular Capillary
15 mmHgPeripheral Veins
0 mmHgRight Atrium
Pressure gradient 93-0= 93 mmHgSys.Circulation Pressure Gradient
Helps to maintain a high pressure in the arteriesElastic Recoil
Helps to maintain the flow of blood in vessels even when the heart is relaxingElastic Recoil
Volume of blood contained in arteries is under constant pressure and is said to beStressed Blood Volume
Found in arterioles of skeletal muscle, when activated these receptors cause vasodilationBeta-2 Adrenergic Receptors
Site of highest resistance in the vasculatureArterioles
A small amount of continual sympathetic stimulus maintains slight smooth muscle contraction in arterioles to maintain thisTone
These vessels are considered exchange vesselsCapillaries
Due to lower pressure, blood contained in veins is calledUnstressed Blood Volume
The smooth muscles lining the walls of the veins are also innervated by the postganglionic sympathetic nerves and contain these receptorsAlpha-1 Adrenergic Receptor
Venoconstriction increases blood return to the heart increases thisVenous Return
Diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressureFormula for MAP
This artery type has the smallest cross-sectional area (CSA)Aorta
This artery type has the largest cross-sectional area (CSA)Capillaries
Velocity of blood flow is inversely proportional toCross-Sectional Area
Velocity of blood flow is highest hereAorta
Velocity of blood flow is lowest hereCapillaries
Calculated by Pressure gradient (P1 - P2) divided by the resistance of the vessel (R)Flow Rate (Q)
Calculated by 8 times blood viscosity (η) times the length of the blood vessel (L) divided by pi (π) times the radius (r) to the fourth powerResistance
Most important factor regulating resistance & blood flow in the bodyRadius of Blood Vessel
Primary determinant of blood viscosityHemocrit (RBCs)
41% - 53%Normal Hemocrit Male
36% - 46%Normal Hemocrit Female
14 - 18 g/dLNormal Hb Male
12 - 16 g/dLNormal Hb Female
Diameter x Velocity x Desenity / ViscosityReynold's Number
Reynold’s number > 2000Turbulent Flow
Reynold’s number < 2000Laminar Flow
Blood flow is dependentSeries System
Blood flow is independentParallel System
A major feature is flow must be equal at all points. If flow changes it changes equally at all points in aSeries System
In any organ, different types of blood vessels are connected in series between the feeding artery and the draining veinSeries System
The reciprocal of the total resistance is the sum of the reciprocals of the individual resistanceParallel System
Adding another resistance decreases the total resistance in circuitParallel System
Removing a resistance increases the total resistance in a circuitParallel System
Force attempting to break open vessel wallWall Tension
Wall tension (T) = Pressure (P) x radius (r)Laplace Law
The change in volume per unit change in pressureVessel Compliance
Delta V / Delta PVessel Compliance
Highly compliant. Hold large volume of blood (70% of systemic blood volume). Small change in pressure large change in volumeSystemic Veins
Larger veins innervated by sympathetic nerves that change the venomotor tone by altering diameter, leading to reduction in stored blood volumeIncreased Venous Return
Stroke volume of heart and Arterial compliance are factors affectingSystolic Pressure
Peripheral resistance, Stroke volume and Arterial complianceDiastolic Pressure
A decrease in venous return, cardiac output decreases and MAP decreasesEffects of Gravity