Physio test 2 summer

robbypowell's version from 2015-07-12 22:36

types of chemical messengers

Question Answer
This type of chemical messenger is secreted from nerve terminals and use to communicate between nervesNeurotransmitters
This type of chemical messenger is often produced from glands & released into systematic circulationENDOCRINE hormones
This type of chemical messenger is released by Neurons of the CNS & released into systemic circulationNeuroendocrine hormone
This type of chemical messenger is secreted into the ECF & acts on neighboring cells w/in ECFPARACRINE hormones
This type of chemical messenger is released into the ECF & acts on the same cell that released itAutocrine hormones


Question Answer
Where are neurotransmitters synthesized?In the CELL BODY of the neuron
Region of the axon just before the synaptic cleft is called...NERVE TERMINAL
Gap between nerve axon and its target is called...SYNAPTIC CLEFT (synapse)
How are neurotransmitters protected from digestion within a neuron?stored in VESICLES
Depolarization of neurons result in the opening of voltage-gated ___ channelsCalcium (this causes the uptick in charge in cell)
How are neurotransmitters released?Exocytosis (their vesicles fuse with the cell membrane, releasing their contents into the ECF... here, into the synaptic cleft)
What is a major mechanism of ensuring the temporary effect of neurotransmitters?Enzymes in the synaptic cleft remove neurotransmitters

endocrine hormones

Question Answer
Where is the hormone LEPTIN produced?Adipose tissue (adipose tissue is, then, considered a sort of gland)
List the 11 "Endocrine glands"1. Hypothalamus, 2. Pineal gland, 3. Pituitary, 4. Thyroid, 5. Parathyroid, 6. Thymus, 7. Stomach, 8. Adrenal glands, 9. Pancreas, 10. Small intestine, 11. Ovares & Testes
3 Hormone classes (by chemical structure)Peptides, Steroids, & Tyrosine derivatives
What class of Hormones (by chemical structure) do Adrenocorticoids & Sex hormones fall into?Steroids
What class of hormones (by chemical structure) do TRH (Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone), GH (Growth Hormone), & Insulin fall into?Peptides (proteins)
What class of hormones (by chemical structure) are produced in the Thyroid gland?Tyrosine derivatives
In what part of the cell are Protein Hormones (such as Insulin) synthesized?RER (Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum)
What is the name for peptide hormone that is NEWLY synthesized and NOT yet BIOACTIVE?PRE-PRO-HORMONE
What is the name for peptide hormones that have been modified & stored in granules, but not yet secreted?PRO-HORMONE
What is the name for peptide hormones that have been secreted?HORMONE (just peptide hormone)
Are steroids stored?NO, only synthesized as needed and released
What is the precursor of steroids?Cholesterol
What are the sources of Steroid precursors?Cholesterol from FOOD & CHOLESTEROL-ESTER precursors
What type of receptors do steroids act on?INTRA-CELLULAR
What are the two precursors of Thyroid hormones?IODINE & TYROSINE
What are 2 Tyrosine derivative examples of hormones produced by the Thyroid?Thyroxin (T3) & T4
Where are thyroid hormones stored?In COLLOID within the Thyroid
What are 2 examples of Catecholamines?Norepinephrine & Epinephrine
Where is 90% of Epinephrine made?Adrenal MEDULLA (not cortex)
A small change in hormone concentration will lead to a ___ systemic effectLARGE
Because hormone concentrations need to be carefully monitored... they are monitored with ____ feedbackNEGATIVE feedback mechanisms
Under stress the brain signals the _____ to release CRH (Cortisol Releasing Hormone)Hypothalamus
CRH (Cortisol Releasing Hormone) stimulates the ____ to release ____Anterior Pituitary gland; ACTH (Adreno-cortico-tropic Hormone)
ACTH (Adreno-Cortico-Tropic Hormone) stimulates the ___ to release ____Adrenal CORTEX; Cortisol
As a negative feedback mechanism, HIGH levels of Cortisol inhibit the Hypothalamus' release of ___ & the Anterior Pituitary's release of ___CRH (Corticotropin-Releasing-Hormone); *ACTH (AdrenoCorticotropic Hormone)
An example of a rare exception of hormone regulation that relies on POSITIVE feedbackLuteinizing Hormone (LH)
___ stimulates the release of an egg from the UterusLH (Luteinizing Hormone)
What is an example of a hormone that is released at regular intervalsMelatonin (pineal gland)
What is solubility-type of Peptides & Catecholamines?Water Soluble
What is solubility-type of Steroids & Thyroid hormones?Lipid Soluble
How are Lipid Soluble hormones able to circulate in the blood (in order to reach their targets)?Plasma proteins act as carriers until they reach target tissues
Can water-soluble hormones circulate freely in the blood?YES (lipid-soluble need carriers, though)

clearance and action of hormones

Question Answer
What is the main metabolic site of hormones?the LIVER
What organ makes hormones MORE water-soluble & Ionic?the LIVER
How are modified lipid-soluble hormones (& unaltered water-soluble hormones) removed from the body?Glomerular Filtration
What is the receptor mechanism type for Water soluble hormones? (e.g. peptide & Catecholamines)Second-messenger mechanisms
G-proteins are associated with receptors for what type of hormones?Water-soluble (peptides & Catecholamines)
Upon hormone binding, the alpha subunit of ___ _____ receptors is released and activates the second messengersG-Protein
Adenylil cyclase (enzyme) results in the synthesis of what second messenger?cAMP
what does cAMP act on and what does it do?acts on Protein Kinase A, ACTIVATES
What does activated Phospholipase C do?Splits PIP2 (phospholipids in cell membrane) into DAG & IP second messengers
What does the second messenger DAG do?activates Protein Kinase C
What does the second messenger IP do?opens Calcium channels
What macro-level effect results from Protein Kinase C?Intense Muscle Contractions
T/F: There is no G-protein involved in Calmodulin-Calmodulin pathwaysTrue
2 examples of hormones using Tyrosine Kinase receptorsInsulin & Leptin
Does nitric oxide use a G-Protein receptor?No (directly activate Guanylyl Cyclase, second messenger)
What do NO and ANF cause?Smooth Muscle Dilation
Steroid and Thyroid hormones have their receptors where on/in cell?Intracellular (forming hormone-receptor complex, which then enters nucleus)
What are 2 ways to assess hormone levels in blood?Radioimmunoassay & ELISA ((Enzyme-linked immunoSorbert Assay)


Question Answer
Calmodulin is ACTIVATED by ___ bindingCALCIUM (Ca2+)
What is the response of steroid hormone target cells?follows chromatin binding of an intracellular receptor
What is the receptor type of most steroids?INTRAcellular (response follows chromatin binding)
How quickly do changes in rates of transcription and translation occur after receptor binding of INSULIN?WITHIN SECONDS
What is the effect of Growth hormone?ANABOLIC ("building up") (as opposed to catabolic... which is breaking down)
Does diabetes have a higher or lower incidence of Artherosclerosis than the general population?HIGHER incidence
Gonads are the chief target for what hormone?FSH
how does Iodination act relative to concentration gradient?AGAINST gradient
What is DE-IODINE important for?Recycling Iodine
Moon-face is a symptom of what disease?Cushing's disease
Why are patients with HYPOthyroidism a potential risk in dental clinics?Hypersensitive to narcotics & local anesthesia
What is the major endocrine response from stress?Increase in blood FATTY ACIDS
What effect does glycogen have on blood glucose?Increases it
What physiological parameter is defended by Aldosterone?Blood Volume
What does Oxytocin stimulate?Myoepithelial cell contraction
Diabetes Insipidus is associated with what?Excessive Urination
What plasma protein is responsible for more than 50% of plasma transport of T3 & T4?Thyroxin binding globulin
What effect does insulin have on fat metabolism?promotes increase of VLDL in adipose
Excess secretion of growth hormone BEFORE puberty causesGigantism
What type of receptor do steroid hormones have?Hormone/Receptor Complex (intracellular)
ACTH binding to adrenocortical cells DIRECTLY increases the activity ofDESMOLASE
What effect does GLUCAGON have on blood glucose levels?increase blood glucose
This type of diabetes is ketosis proneType 1
Live phosphorylase is stimulated byGlucagon
Most common cause of non-insulin dependent diabetes is...Insulin resistance
What hormone stimulates glycogen synthase?Insulin
T/F: Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone is modulated by body temperatureTrue
Receptors for this hormone are found primarily on liver cellsGlucagon
What does Ghrelin do?Modulate Growth Hormone
What hormone inhibits many other hormones?Somatostatin
Does the brain or stomach utilize more carbohydrates for energy?Brain
What causes gluconeogenesis in the liver?Glucagon
What is Iodine trapping?transport into cell against concentration gradient
What hormone is responsible for Acromegaly?GH