Physio final

robbypowell's version from 2015-04-29 14:09

abebe day 2

Question Answer
***What are the causes of obesity?Sedentary Lifestyle, Abnormal feeding behavior, Childhood over-nutrition, Neurogenic abnormalities, genetic factors
Genetic factors contribute _____ to ____ % toward obesity20-25%
Mutations of what genes would count as a genetic factor of obesity?MCR-3 (leptin gene)
Increased production of _____ and decreases production of _____ & _____ would be neurological causes of obesityNPY; leptin?,
What food component do people use for IMMEDIATE supply of energy (for people who are starving)CARBOHYDRATES
Up to one week of starvation, a starving person using equal amounts of ___ and ___. After that point, they use more ___ (until 6th week)protein & fat; fat
Marasmustotal starvation in CHILDREN (inadequate nutrition of all forms)
Inanitionopposite of obesity, (can be short period starvation, while Marasmus is chronic), (can have pathophysiological or psychogenic conditions)
Cachexiametabolic disorder of increased energy expenditure leading to weight loss (not a problem with food intake... body is just wasting away)
Bulimia NervosaBinge eating and compulsive (compensatory) purging behavior
Anorexia Nervosadisturbed body image, don't eat

Vitamin questions on exam

Question Answer
Vitamin A deficiency?blindness
What vitamin contributes to the rods and cones of retina?Vit A
Which vitamins are fat-soluble?A, D, K
Pernicious Anemia is lack of _____ or ____Vit B12 or Intrinsic factor
N2O has what effect on B12?Oxidizes, causes deficiency if frequent or prolonged
What are the symptoms for B12 oxidation?peripheral nerves are impaired... can led to demyelination of peripheral nerves (paralysis)
Vitamin C deficiency?Scurvy
What vitamin is important for formation of collagen?vitamin C
Vitamin C is an essential cofactor for ___ ___ activation. which promotes hydroxylation of ____ (aa), an essential component of collagen.
What is vitamin D is important for...?Calcium resorption, bone formation
Deficiency of vitamin D (disease)rickets
Vitamin K is essential forBlood clotting
Where is vitamin K formed?by bacteria in the colon
Coumadin (Warfarin) interferes with the action of what Vitamin?Vitamin K
What vitamin is necessary for formation of prothrombin?Vitamin K


(no questions on minerals)
(no clinical problems from handout)

numbers from eye

Question Answer
Aqueous humor flow in the eye per minuteAbout 2-3µL/min
Aqueous humor flow in the eye per dayAbout 2-3mL/day


Question Answer
EmmetropiaNormal vision
o Does not need to be corrected with lenses
o Light rays are focused by the eye lens onto the fovea
Question Answer
HyperopiaFar-sightedness (The eye lens focuses light rays past the fovea) (The eye is “too short”) (Corrected by biconvex lenses)
Myopia Near-sightedness
o The eye lens focuses light rays in front of the fovea
• the eye is “loo long”
o Corrected by biconcave lenses
• Misalignment of the eye/ cross-eye
• Caused by different focal points for each eye
o This means images are not formed on the corresponding portion of each retina
o The brain attempts to correct this by crossing the eyes
• Lazy eye
• Due to a refractive error leading to blurred vision in the affected eye, especially when tired
• Corrected through muscle shortening surgery and muscle training
o 6 different muscles control eye movement
• Dr. Whitford has this condition
• Night blindness
• Caused by vitamin A deficiency
o Leads to lack of rhodopsin
• Treated by increased vitamin A in the diet
Color blindness
• Genetic absence of red, green, and/or blue cones
• Prevalence among Caucasians
o 8% of males
o 0.4% females
o Red-green color blindness is most common, and only in males (X-linked trait)
• May also be a side effect of Viagra- inhibits retinal phosphodiesterase
• Tested with Ishihara charts


• Not a problem for dentistry since the dentist generally only needs to judge shades of white and yellow
• Age-related clouding of the lens
• Caused by accumulation of debris on the lens
• Corrected by surgical lens removal and artificial lens implantation
Accommodation spasm
• Acute spasm of the ciliary muscle, leading to inability to accommodate near vision
Retinal detachment
• Separation of the retina from the pigment epithelium
• Reduces retinal nutrition
• Symptoms
o Floaters in vision
• Caused by the presence of hemoglobin in front of the retina
o Flashing lights
o Sudden loss of vision
• “As if the curtains are being pulled down”
• Treated using laser surgery
• Curvature of lens and cornea no longer uniform
• Leads to 2 or more focal lengths per eye
• Can be correctable with lenses, but isn’t easy